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Flashcards in Verbs01 Deck (92):

gain V
The mayor has gained a lot of support from the teacher's union.
What do you hope to gain from the course?

-to get something that is useful, that gives you an advantage, or that is in some way positive, especially over a period of time:


define V
It is very difficult to define the concept of beauty.

to say what the meaning of something, especially a word, is:


claim V
Some people still claim that there is no firm evidence linking smoking with lungcancer.

- to say that something is true or is a fact, although you cannotprove it and other people might not believe it
- to ask for something of value because you think it belongs to you or because you think you have a right to it


reveal V
1.He was jailed for revealing secrets to the Russians.
2.The survey reveals that two-thirds of married women earn less than their husbands.

1.-to make known or show something that is surprising or that was previously secret:
2.-to allow something to be seen that, until then, had been hidden:


determine V
1. Your health is determined in part by what you eat.
On leaving jail, Joe determined to reform.
2.The jury determined that the men were guilty.

to control or influence something directly, or to decide what will happen:
to make a strong decision:
to discover the facts or truth about something:


pivot V
He pivoted on his heels and headed out.

to turn or twist:


influence V
She's very good at making friends and influencing people.

to affect or change how someone or something develops, behaves, or thinks:


boost V
The theatre managed to boost its audiences by cutting ticket prices.

to improve or increase something:


approach V
1 I see it's approaching lunchtime, so let's take a break.
2 I'm not sure how to approach the problem.
3 She's been approached by a modelling agency.

1 (COME NEAR) to come near or nearer to something or someone in space, time, quality, or amount:
2 (DEAL WITH) to deal with something:
3 (COMMUNICATE) to speak to, write to, or visit someone in order to do something such as make a request or business agreement:


commit V
1 He was sent to prison for a crime that he didn't commit.
2 The government must commit itself TO improving healthcare.

1 to do something illegal or something that is considered wrong:
2 - with TO - (PROMISE) or give your loyalty, time, or money to a particular principle, person, or plan of action:


grill V
1 Her parents would grill her about where she'd been.
2 I'll grill the bacon rather than fry it.

1 to ask someone a lot of questions for a long time:
2 (COOK)


tip V
1 Don't tip your chair back like that, you'll fall.
2 She tipped the contents of her purse out onto the table.
3 The giraffe was killed with a spear that had been tipped with poison.
4 The taxi driver was so rude to her that she didn't tip him.

1 (ONE SIDE HIGHER) to (cause to) move so that one side is higher than another side:
2 to (POUR) a substance from one container into another or onto a surface:
3 to cover the (END) of something pointed with a liquid, a colour, etc.:
4 (PAYMENT) to give someone who has provided you with a service an extra amount of money to thank them:


urge V
Party leaders urged her to run for Congress.

(ADVISE) to encourage someone strongly to do something or to ask that something be done:


conduct V
1 The experiments were conducted by scientists in New York.
She said that she didn't want a lawyer and was going to conduct her own defence.
2 How should I conduct myself at these dinners? I know nothing about etiquette.
3 The protesters were conducted from the courtroom by two police officers.j

1 (ORGANIZE) and perform a particular activity:
2 (BEHAVE) to behave in a particular way, especially in a public or formal situation, or to organize the way in which you live in a particular way:
3 (SHOW WAY) to lead someone to a particular place:


display V
1 Family photographs were displayed on the wall.
2 Retailers should display delivery times and costs on their websites.

1 (ARRANGE) something or a collection of things so that it can be seen by the public:
2 (SHOW) a feeling or words, pictures, etc. on a screen:


attempt V
1 He attempted a joke, but no one laughed.

1 to try to do something, especially something difficult:


sustain V
1 He seems to find it difficult to sustain relationships with women.
2 Most buildings sustained only minimal damage in the earthquake.
3 The love of my family and friends sustained me through my ordeal.

1 (CONTINUE)to cause or allow something to continue for a period of time:
2 (SUFFER) or experience, especially damage or loss:
3 (SUPPORT) emotionally:


excel V
Rebecca always excelled in languages at school.

to be extremely good at something:


quote V
1 The architect has quoted £90,000 to build a patio.
2 He's always quoting from the Bible.

2 (SAY) to repeat the words that someone else has said or written:


decline V
1 His interest in the project declined after his wife died.
2 I invited him to the meeting but he declined.

1 (GO DOWN) to gradually become less, worse, or lower:


cope V
It must be really hard to cope with three young children and a job.

to deal successfully with a difficult situation:


shift V
1 The wind is expected to shift (to the east) tomorrow.
2 The people at the toy shop expect to shift a lot of stock in the run-up to Christmas.

to (cause something or someone to) move or change from one position or direction to another, especially slightly:
2 (GET RID OF) of something unwanted, or to sell something:


stain V
While she was changing the wheel on her car, her coat had become stained with oil.

to leave a mark on something that is difficult to remove:


itch V
I can't wear wool - it makes me itch.

to have or cause an uncomfortable feeling on the skin that makes you want to rub it with your nails:


adjust V
1 As a teacher you have to adjust your methods to suit the needs of slower children.
2 I can't adjust to living on my own.
Her eyes slowly adjusted to the dark.

1 to (MAKE CHANGES) something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable:
2 (BECOME FAMILIAR) with a new situation:


compile V
1 We're compiling some facts and figures for a documentary on the subject.

1 to collect information from different places and arrange it in a book, report, or list:


intend V
Somehow I offended him, which wasn't what I'd intended.
The course is intended for intermediate-level students.

(PLAN) to have as a plan or purpose:


abuse V
1 She is continually abusing her position/authority by getting other people to do things for her.
2 Several of the children had been sexually/physically/emotionally abused.
3 The crowd started abusing him after he failed to save a goal.

1 (USE WRONGLY) to use something for the wrong purpose in a way that is harmful or morally wrong:
2 (TREAT CRUELLY) someone cruelly or violently:
3 (SPEAK RUDELY) or cruelly:


core V
Peel and core the pears before cooking them.

to remove the core from a piece of fruit:


allege V
The two men allege (that) the police forced them to make false confessions.

to say that someone has done something illegal or wrong without giving proof:


occur V
1 An accident involving over ten vehicles has occurred in the east-bound lane.
2 Violence of some type seems to occur in every society.

1 (HAPPEN) (especially of accidents and other unexpected events)
2 (EXIST) or be present in, among, etc.:


bid V
She knew she couldn't afford it, so she didn't bid.
The department is trying to ensure fairer competition among firms bidding for city contracts.

1 to (OFFER) a particular amount of money for something that is for sale and compete against other people to buy it, especially at a public sale of goods or property:
If two or more people bid for a job, they compete with each other to do the work by offering to do it for a particular amount of money:


forecast V
They forecast a large drop in unemployment over the next two years.

to say what you expect to happen in the future:


lash V
1 The prisoners were regularly lashed with electric cable.
2 These poles will be easier to carry if we lash them together with a rope.
3 I was only teasing him and suddenly he lashed OUT (at me) and hit me in the face.

1 (HIT) with a lot of force:
2 (TIE) together tightly and firmly:
3 -with OUT- to suddenly attack someone or something physically or criticize him, her, or it in an angry way:


hike V
1 Let's hike a little.
2 Retailers have hiked (up) prices again.

1 to go for a long (WALK) in the countryside
2 to (INCREASE) the cost of something:


crush V
1 The package had been badly crushed in the post.
2 He was crushed by the news of the accident.
3 The president called upon the army to help crush the rebellion

1 (PRESS) something very hard so that it is broken or its shape is destroyed:
2 to upset or (SHOCK) someone badly:
3 to (BEAT) someone completely:


observe V
1 The role of scientists is to observe and describe the world, not to try to control it.
2 The guards failed to observe who delivered the package.
3 I've always found German cars very reliable," he observed.

1 (WATCH) carefully the way something happens or the way someone does something, especially in order to learn more about it:
2 (NOTICE) or see:
3 (SAY) to make a remark about something:


obey V
The soldiers refused to obey (orders).
The role of the police is to ensure that the law is obeyed.

to act according to what you have been asked or ordered to do by someone in authority, or to behave according to a rule, law, or instruction:


defeat V
1 Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington at the battle of Waterloo.
2 Our ambitions for this tournament have been defeated by the weather.

1 to win against someone in a fight, war, or competition:
2 to cause someone or something to fail:


ditch V
The getaway car had been ditched a couple of miles away from the scene of the robbery.

(GET RID OF) of something or someone that is no longer wanted:


evaluate V
It's impossible to evaluate these results without knowing more about the research methods employed.
The effects of the drug on patients' behaviour is extremely difficult to evaluate.

to judge or calculate the quality, importance, amount, or value of something:


expand V
The air in the balloon expands when heated.
They expanded their retail operations during the 1980s.

to increase in size, number, or importance, or to make something increase in this way:


obtain V
1 First editions of these books are now almost impossible to obtain.
2 Conditions of extreme poverty now obtain in many parts of the country.

1 (GET) something, especially by asking for it, buying it, working for it, or producing it from something else:
2 (EXIST) especially of a situation:


revise V
1 His helpfulness today has made me revise my original opinion/impression of him.
2 We're revising (algebra) for the test tomorrow.

1 (CHANGE) to look at or consider again an idea, piece of writing, etc. in order to correct or improve it:
2 to study again something you have already learned, in preparation for an exam:


inquire V
Shall I inquire about the price of tickets?
She called to inquire when her car would be ready.

to ask for information:


assume V
1 I assumed (that) you knew each other because you went to the same school.
2 During the investigation, two detectives assumed the identities of antiques dealers.
3 The new president assumes office at midnight tonight.

1 (ACCEPT) something to be true without question or proof:
2 (PRETEND TO HAVE) a different name or be someone you are not, or to express a feeling falsely:
3 (TAKE CONTROL) sometimes without the right to do so, or to begin to have a characteristic:


remain V
The doctor ordered him to remain in bed for a few days.
After the flood, nothing remained of the village.
Only a few hundred of these animals remain today.

to stay in the same place or in the same condition:
to continue to exist when other parts or other things no longer exist:


void V
Apple seeks to void patent claims

to remove the legal force from something, such as a legal agreement


seek V
1 Hundreds of dissidents are seeking refuge/asylum in the US embassy.
2 Legal advice should be sought before you take any further action.
3 They sought to reassure the public.

1 (SEARCH) to try to find or get something, especially something that is not a physical object:
2 to ask for advice, help, approval, permission, etc.:
3 (TRY) or attempt:


concern V
1 The state of my father's health concerns us greatly.
2 Matters of pollution and the environment concern us all.

1 to cause (WORRY) to someone:
2 to be important to someone or to involve someone directly:


dent V
1 I dropped a hammer on the floor, and it dented the floorboard.
2 His confidence was badly dented when he didn't get the job.

1 to make a small hollow mark in the surface of something:
2 If you dent someone's confidence or pride, you make them feel less confident or proud:


purchase V
She purchased her first house with the money.
Members will have the opportunity to purchase additional shares in the company at a big discount.

to buy something:


pale V
His face paled and he looked as if he might faint.

If a person's face pales, it loses its usual colour:


proclaim V
1 Republican party members were confidently proclaiming victory even as the first few votes came in.
2 Wearing scarves and hats which proclaimed their allegiance, the football fans flooded into the bar.

1 (ANNOUNCE) something publicly or officially, especially something positive:
2 (SHOW) something or make it clear:


haul V
1 They hauled the boat out of the water.
2 FBI agents hauled away boxes of records.

1 to pull something heavy slowly and with difficulty:
2 to take something or someone somewhere, especially by force:


persist V
1 If the pain persists, consult a doctor.
The cold weather is set to persist throughout the week.
2 If he persists in asking awkward questions, then send him to the boss.

1 If an unpleasant feeling or situation persists, it continues to exist:
2 to try to do or continue doing something in a determined but often unreasonable way:


spot V
I've just spotted Mark - he's over there, near the entrance.
I soon spotted what was wrong with the printer.

1 to (SEE) or notice someone or something, usually because you are looking hard:


merge V
They decided to merge the two companies into one.
The blue and green paint merge together at the edges.
That is the area where our interests merge.

to combine or join together, or to cause things to do this:
to join a line of moving traffic without causing other vehicles to slow down


convey V
His poetry conveys a great sense of religious devotion.
Few journalists have managed to convey the full horror of the situation.
Words alone cannot convey the untold misery endured by people in these refugee camps.

(COMMUNICATE) to express a thought, feeling, or idea so that it is understood by other people:


recite V
She proudly recited the Pledge of Allegiance.
The opposition party recited a long list of the government's failings.

to say a piece of writing aloud from memory, or to publicly say a list of things


oblige V
1 The law obliges companies to pay decent wages to their employees.
The law does not obligate sellers to accept the highest offer.
2 We only went to the party to oblige some old friends who asked us to be there.
We needed a guide and he was only too happy to oblige.

1 to (FORCE) someone to do something, or to make it necessary for someone to do something:
2 to please or (HELP) someone, especially by doing something they have asked you to do:


plot V
1 Radar operators plotted the course of the incoming missile.
We've plotted our projected costs for the coming year, and they show a big increase.
2 I can't believe that he's plotting against his own father.
They're plotting (together) to take over the company.
3 So far I've only plotted (out) the story in a rough form.

1 to mark or draw something on a piece of paper or a map
to make marks to show the position, movement, or development of something, usually in the form of lines or curves between a series of points on a map or piece of paper:
2 to make a secret plan to do something wrong, harmful, or illegal:
3 to write the plot (STORY) for something:


enable V
Computerization should enable us to cut production costs by half.
Some tests enable you to find out the sex of your baby before it's born.
Only good team work will enable us to get the job done on time.

to make someone able to do something, or to make something possible:


acknowledge V
You must acknowledge the truth of her argument.
He didn't even acknowledge my presence (= show that he had seen me).
Please acknowledge receipt of this letter.

to accept, admit, or recognize something, or the truth or existence of something:
to tell someone, usually in a letter or email, that you have received something they sent you:


strive V (strove or strived, striven or strived)
In her writing she strove for a balance between innovation and familiar prose forms.
We strive to ensure that all children are treated equally.
We strive for perfection but sometimes have to accept something less.

to try very hard to do something or to make something happen, especially for a long time or against difficulties


accomplish V
The students accomplished the task in less than ten minutes.
She accomplished such a lot during her visit.
If you are fit, the climb can be accomplished in less than three hours.

to finish something successfully or to achieve something:


quiz V
She spent an hour being quizzed by journalists.

to ask someone questions about something:


execute V
1 He was executed for murder.
2 The whole play was executed with great precision.

1 to kill someone as a legal punishment:
2 to do or perform something, especially in a planned way:


deploy V
1 The company is reconsidering the way in which it deploys its resources/staff.
My job doesn't really allow me fully to deploy my skills/talents.
3 The decision has been made to deploy extra troops/more powerful weapons.

1 to use something or someone, especially in an effective way:
2 to move soldiers or equipment to a place where they can be used when they are needed:


facilitate V
The new ramp will facilitate the entry of wheelchairs.
The current structure does not facilitate efficient work flow.

to make something possible or easier:


tremble V
When he came out of the water, he was trembling with cold.
Her bottom lip trembled, and tears welled up in her eyes.

to shake slightly, usually because you are cold, frightened, or very emotional:


faint V
He faints at the sight of blood.
I nearly fainted in the heat.

to suddenly become unconscious for a short time, usually falling down:


shrink V (shrank, shrunk)
1 Your sweater will shrink if you wash it at too high a temperature.
The company's profits have shrunk from $5.5 million to $1.25 million.
2 The child shrank behind the sofa as his father shouted at him.

1 to become smaller, or to make something smaller:
2 to move away from someone or something because you are (BE FRIGHTENED):


mutter V
He was muttering (away) to himself.
Laurence muttered something about his wife and left.

to speak quietly and in a low voice that is not easy to hear, often when you are worried or complaining about something:


buzz V
1 I can hear something buzzing.
2 Reporters were buzzing around, trying to get the full story.

1 to make a continuous, low sound such as the one a bee makes
2 (BE VERY ACTIVE) to be busy and full of energy:


hesitate V
She hesitated slightly before answering the detective's question.
"Do you love me?" she asked. He hesitated and then said, "I'm not sure."
Should you ever need anything, please don't hesitate to contact me.

to pause before you do or say something, often because you are uncertain or nervous about it:


chatter V
1 She spent the morning chattering away to her friends.
He chattered happily about nothing in particular.
​2 I could hardly talk, my teeth were chattering so much.
3 The gun shot made the monkeys chatter in alarm.

1 (TALK/NOISE) to talk for a long time about things that are not important:
2 If your (TEETH) chatter, they knock together repeatedly because you are very cold or frightened:
3 If animals chatter, they make quick, repeated noises:


glance V
She glanced around/round the room to see who was there.
He glanced up from his book as I passed.
Could you glance over/through this letter and see if it's alright?

to give a quick short (LOOK):


shuffle V
1 I love shuffling through the fallen leaves.
He shuffled into the kitchen, leaning on his walking stick.
2 She shuffled her papers nervously on her desk.
Many prisoners have to be shuffled around police stations because of prison overcrowding.
3 It's your turn to shuffle the cards.

1 to walk by pulling your feet slowly along the ground rather than lifting them: шаркать
2 to move similar things from one position or place to another, often to give an appearance of activity when nothing useful is being done:
3 to mix a set of playing cards without seeing their values before beginning a game, so that their order is not known to any of the players:


shatter V
1 The glass shattered into a thousand tiny pieces.
His leg was shattered in the accident.
2 The book shattered all her illusions about the Romans.
Noisy motorbikes shattered the peace/calm/stillness.

1 to (cause something to) break suddenly into very small pieces:
2 to end or severely damage something:


narrow V
1 The road narrows after the bridge.
He narrowed his eyes in suspicion.
2 The retailer's loss narrowed to $3 million from $10 million a year earlier.

1 to become less wide or to make something less wide:
2 to become less:


regard V
1 Environmentalists regard GM technology with suspicion.
2 The bird regarded me with suspicion as I walked up to its nest.

1 to consider or have an opinion about something or someone:
2 to look carefully at something or someone:


rub V
We rubbed some polish into the surface of the wood.
She yawned and rubbed her eyes sleepily.
First rub the baking tray well with butter.

to press or be pressed against something with a circular or up-and-down repeated movement:


assemble V
1 We assembled in the meeting room after lunch.
Everyone is assembling outside the cathedral, ready for the Remembrance Day parade.
2 furniture that is easy to assemble

1 to come together in a single place or bring parts together in a single group:
2 to make something by joining separate parts:


bargain V
Unions bargain with employers for better rates of pay each year.

to try to make someone agree to give you something that is better for you, such as a better price or better working conditions:


fade V
Many of these problems may simply fade into irrelevance when the new rules come into force.
If you hang your clothes out in the bright sun, they will fade.
My suntan is already fading.

to (cause to) lose colour, brightness, or strength gradually:


haunt V
1 30 years after the fire he is still haunted by images of death and destruction.
Memories of the semifinal defeat haunted him for the rest of his career.
2 A ghostly lady is said to haunt the stairway looking for her children.

1 (REPEATEDLY TROUBLE) to cause repeated suffering or anxiety:
2 (of a ghost) to appear in a place repeatedly:


enhance V
These scandals will not enhance the organization's reputation.
It's things like this that enhance the quality of life.
The latest revelation certainly won't enhance her image.

to improve the quality, amount, or strength of something:


nod V
Many people in the audience nodded in agreement.
When I suggested a walk, Elena nodded enthusiastically.
She looked up and nodded for me to come in.

to move your head down and then up, sometimes several times, especially to show agreement, approval, or greeting, or to show something by doing this:


pursue V
1 The car was pursued by helicopters.
The hunters spent hours pursuing their prey.
2 The company has been pursuing Holton for some time, but so far he has rejected all their offers.
The police are currently pursuing several lines of inquiry into the case
3 He decided to pursue a career in television.
We need to decide soon what marketing strategy we should pursue for these new products.

1 to follow someone or something, usually to try to catch him, her, or it:
to try very hard to persuade someone to accept a job:
to try to discover information about a subject:
3 If you pursue a plan, activity, or situation, you try to do it or achieve it, usually over a long period of time:


gamble V
Anyone who gambles on the stock exchange has to be prepared to lose money.
I like to gamble when I play cards - it makes it more interesting.

to do something that involves risks that might result in loss of money or failure, hoping to get money or achieve success:


glow V
1 A nightlight glowed dimly in the corner of the children's bedroom.
2 The children's faces were glowing with excitement.
They came back from their week at the beach, glowing with health.

1 to produce a continuous light and sometimes heat:
2 to look attractive because you are happy or healthy, especially with eyes that are shining: