Vertebral Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy (DO 1) > Vertebral Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vertebral Anatomy Deck (32):
1

The dens of C2 articulates with what feature of C1?

Anterior Arch

2

Where do spinal arteries enter the spinal canal

Intervertebral foramen (formed by the inferior vertebral notch of a superior vertebra and the superior vertebral notch of an inferior vertebra)

3

Sacral nerve 5 and coccygeal nerve exit where?

sacral hiatus

4

Where are the primary curvatures of the spine

Thorasic
Sacral

5

inferior attachment of liagmentum nuchae

spinous process of C7

6

Where is the attachment of the posterior longitudinal ligament

posterior surface of the vertebral body

7

What connects the vertebral arch to the vertebral body

Pedicle

8

Number of vertebra in each section

C:7 T:12: L: 5 S: 5 fused Coccygeal: 4, 3 fused

9

General features of a vertebra

- Body + Pedicles + lamina = intravertebral foramen, spinous process, transverse processes , superior articular facet, inferior articular facet, vertebral notches to form vertebral canal with interior and superior vertebra

10

General size trend as you move down the vertebral column

Bodies get larger as you move down the vertebral column

11

Defining features of Cervical vertebra

- transverse foramen (ALL)
- small body
- bifed spinous process (c3- C6, sometimes 2)
- uncinate process (hooks on superior body)
- facet 45 degrees (transverse and coronal plane)

12

Defining features of Thorasic vertebra

- Articular facets typically 60 in the coronal plane (upper) and sagittal plane (lower)
- bodies increase in size as you move down
- long downward swooping spinous process (makes it difficult for palpation)
- Costal facets

13

Defining features of Lumbar vertebra

- Mammillary process
- Accessory process
- Large body
- Broad spine
- Articular Facets are vertical in the sagittal plane

14

Characteristics of the Sacrum

- Promontory (most anterior part)
- Median sacral crest (4 spines)
- Sacral hiatus
- Anterior and posterior sacral foramina
- Auricular surface

15

Coccyx

- 4 vertebra (3 fused)
- Cornua

16

Cornua

small horns that articulate on the apex of the sacrum

17

Uncinate processes

small hooks found on cervical vertebra that attach it to the vertebra above it
Provides stability

18

Atypical vertebra

C1 (atlas)
C2 (axis)
C7 - vertebral prominens

19

Primary Curvature of the spine

Concave anterior (fetal)

- seen in thoracic and sacral regions

20

Secondary Curvatures of the spine

Concave posterior

- seen in cervical and lumbar regions

21

Kyphosis

Exaggerated thoracic curve (humpback)

22

Lordosis

Exaggerated lumbar curvature

23

Pelvis and the back

Forward tilting pelvis- lordosis
Backward tilting pelvis- flat back

24

Parts of intervertebral disk

1.) Annulus fibrosus (outer layer)
2.) Nucleus pulposus (inner layer) - jelly donut

25

Annulus Fibrosis

Outer layer of vertebral disc
Criss cross fibers
Function- shock absorption

26

Nucleus Pulposus

Gain water when relaxed, lose water when compressed

27

Problems that can arise from uncovertebral joints

Risk pinching the spinal nerve root and the vertebral artery that pass through the foramina in the area of these joints

28

Cervical movements

Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation

29

Upper thoracic movements

unhindered rotation
moderate lateral flexion
moderate flexion/extension

30

Lower thoracic movements

impedes rotation
improved flexion/extension

31

Lumbar movements

limiting rotation
mostly flexion

32

Costovertebral Joints

Ribs articulate at 3 places on the vertebra (except 1, 10-12 only articulate at 1 )