Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (44):
What are the functions of the spinal column?
•Support and move head
•Transmit &protect spinal cord
•Support thorax and abdomen
•Transmit weight to lower limbs
•Provide framework for lower extremity
What 5 types of vertebrae compose the vertebral column, and how many of each?
Which types of vertebrae are fused together?
Sacral and coccygeal
Which curvatures are considered primary? In which direction do they curve?
•Thoracic and sacral
•Develops in fetus
Which curvatures are considered secondary? In which direction do they curve?
•Cervical and lumbar
•Develops in infancy, develops more concavity from walking age to adult
Why do we need these curvartures? Which are the most important?
•Curvatures help to distribute the weight
•Secondary are the most important (lumbar holds the most weight)
T/F :A person who has never walked will eventually develop secondary curvatures.
Which abnormal curvature is characterized by an exaggerated thoracic curve?
Thoracic Kyphosis (hunchback deformity)
Which abnormal curvature is characterized by an exaggerated lumbar curve?
Lumbar Lordosis (swayback)
Which abnormal curvature is characterized by lateral curvature?
Which part of the vertebra does the spinal cord travel through?
Vertebral foramen (canal)
What is the function of the vertebral body?
•Bears the load of the weight of the body
•Resists compressive forces
Which part of the vertebral column can you visually see? (dorsal ‘spike’)
Which portion of the vertebrae sticks out laterally?
Which part of the vertebra is attached to the ribs?
The transverse process in thoracic vertebrae
What two things form the vertebral arch?
Pedicle and Lamina
What parts of the vertebrae come into contact when assembled into the spinal column?
The superior (top) and inferior (bottom) articular facets
What is the articulation of vertebrae defined as?
Where do nerves exit the spinal column?
The intervertebral foramen
Which cervical vertebrae are considered “typical”? “Atypical”?
•Atypical: C1, C2, C7
What are the unique features of a typical cervical vertebra?
•Small vertebral body
•Short spinous & transverse processes (Bifurcated spinous process,transverse process terminates in anterior and posterior tubercles)
•Transverse foramen (all cervical vertebrae except C7):Vertebral artery/vein, sympathetic nerve plexus, both of these are destined for the head
What is C1 called?
What is atypical about C1?
•2 superior articular facets (where is articulares with the skull)
•No vertebral body
•No spinous process
•Both an anterior and posterior arch(Posterior is larger, more pointy arch)
•Lateral masses on either side of vertebral arch, below the superior articular facets
What is C2 called?
What is atypical about C2?
•Has a “Dens” (odontoid process):Body of the Atlas, axis or axle upon which the Atlas rotates, allows lateral head movement (shake your head “NO”), probably broke off C1 and fused C2 at some point evolutionarily
What is atypical about C7?
•It is not bifurcated (posterior tubercle only)
•Only about 8% have arteries/nerves running through foramen
Which cervical vertebra is the only one not bifurcated?
What are the typical features of a thoracic vertebra?
•Long, inferiorly oriented spinous process (points downward)
•Costal (rib) facets for rib articulations(Body and transverse processes both have facets)
•Intermediately sized hear shapes vertebral body
Where do ribs grow from??
Transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
What are the typical features of a lumbar vertebra?
•Largest vertebral bodies
•No costal facets
•Square-shaped spinous processes
When counting the vertebrae you should always start counting from the TOP. Why?
•Always start at C1 when counting the vertebrae
•Almost every mammal has exactly 7 cervical vertebrae
•Occasionally have varying numbers of thoracic and lumbar
What is located between processes to keep bone from rubbing on bone (ebernation)?
What are the 2 main components of intervertebral discs?
annulus fibrosus &nucleus pulposis
what is annulus fibrosis?
-The outside covering
-Made of fibers and anterior and posterior ligaments
-Runs from anterior to posterior because it allows for more movement
what is nucleus pulposis?
-Squishy inner part
-Over time it will calcify
-Can rupture/herniate; called a “slipped disc”
When the nucleus pulposis bursts, where does it usually burst at? Why?
•Usually happens between lumbar and sacrum (Because it holds the most weight)
•Tends to rupture posteriorly (Because it has a thinner annulus fibrosis; no ligaments)
What type of joints are the articular facets?
Superior and inferior come together at a synovial joint
What types of movements are available to the spinal column?
•Lateral Bending (Lateral Flexion)
(All three are not available at every vertebra)
What movements are available for the cervical vertebrae?
•SOME lateral bending
What movements are available for the thoracic vertebrae?
•SOME lateral bending
What movements are available for the lumbar vertebrae?
Which vertebrae have the loosest connection?
•More easily dislocated
What is the end of the spinal cord called? Where does it occur on the vertebral column?