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Flashcards in Veterinary Ethology and Behavioral Research Deck (25)
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1

Define: Ethology

scientific study of what an animal does and how and why they do it
ethos- custom/character/manner/behavior
logos- description

2

Define: latency

time to start of a behavior

3

Define: frequency

number of times a particular behavior is done

4

Define: duration

amount of time a particular behavior lasts

5

Ethology (Nobel laureates year/names)

Konrad Lorenz, Karl von Frisch, Nicholas Tinbergen
1973- discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns

6

4 questions

(Tinbergen's)- logically distinct/not mutually exclusive
How does it work
How did it develop
What is it for
How did the behavior evolve

7

Canine signaling

"soft" language of canines toward humans, method of communication between canines; system of signals developed which facilitate the maintenance of this organization with minimal overt aggression

8

Benefits of animal research

public perception/attitude has changed
1992- creation of Assoc. for the Study of Animal; Behavior in the UK; Animal Behavior Society in US
Formed the ethical committee and the animal care committee respectively; have joint guidelines for the use of animals in research

9

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

published in 1996; 8th edition published in 2011; compare research quality with animal suffering and determine acceptable research proposals

10

Steps to studying behavior

Ask a question
Make preliminary observations and formulate hypotheses
Make predictions from the hypotheses
Identify which behavioral variables need to be measured in order to test these predictions
Choose suitable recording methods for measuring these behavioral variables
Collect sufficient data
Use appropriate statistics

11

Empirical results

first-hand description, relying on or derived from observation or experiment

12

Technology results

use of recording devices

13

Event

behavior pattern of relatively short duration, salient feature is frequency of occurrence (# times cat grooms itself in an hour)

14

State

behavior pattern of relatively long duration, such as prolonged activities, body postures, or proximity measures; salient feature is duration (total time a cat spends grooming over a one hour period)

15

Ad libitum

observe an animal and make general notes about what it is doing, or what it is doing of interest

16

Focal

observe one animal (sometimes 2) for a fixed amount of time and record all the behaviors that you are looking for

17

Point or Instantaneous

at predetermined moments inn time, record all the behaviors the animal is doing

18

All occurrences

record all occurrences of one or a small number of behaviors and ignore all others (used with large groups of animals)

19

Intra-observer reliability

one observer consistent in how they measure and count or does it change

20

Inter-observer reliability

do 2 or more observers measure in an identical or similar fashion

21

Complete ethogram

list of all behaviors exhibited by a species

22

Practical ethogram

list of behaviors of interest

23

Displacement activity

inappropriate behavior which occurs when an animal is experiencing conflict between 2 opposing drives

24

Vacuum activity

instinctive behavior performed in the absence of the stimulus to which it would normally be directed

25

Redirected behavior

motivation to perform an activity toward an appropriate target, interrupted or prevented from reaching that target, behavior gets directed toward a less appropriate target