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Flashcards in VI - Neoplasia Deck (107):
1

This term literally means "new growth".

Neoplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

2

An abnormal mass of tissue the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after the cessation of stimuli which evoked the change.

Neoplasm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

3

Study of tumors.

Oncology(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

4

Benign or malignant?Localized

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

5

Benign or malignant?Amenable to surgical removal

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

6

Benign or malignant?Invades and destroys adjacent tissues.

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

7

What are the two basic components of tumors?

Parenchyma and Stroma(TOPNOTCH)

8

Benign or malignant?Metastasis

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

9

This component of tumors largely determines its biologic behavior.

Parenchyma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

10

This component of tumors determines the name of the growth.

Parenchyma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

11

This component of tumors is crucial to the growth of neoplasms since it carries the blood supply and provides support to the growth of cells.

Stroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

12

Benign or malignant?Fibroma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

13

Benign or malignant?Chondroma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

14

Benign or malignant?Adenoma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

15

Benign or malignant?Hepatoma

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

16

Benign or malignant?Papilloma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

17

Malignant neoplasms arising in mesenchymal tissue or its derivatives.

Sarcomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

18

Benign tumor arising in fibrous tissue is called?

Fibroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

19

A benign cartilagenous tumor is called?

Chondroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

20

This is a benign epithelial neoplasm which produces glandular patterns or neoplasms derived from glands but not necessarily exhibit glandular patterns

Adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

21

These are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

Papillomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

22

A mass that projects above a mucosal surface to form a macroscopically visible structure.

Polyps(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

23

A cancer of fibrous tissue origin.

Fibrosarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

24

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin.

Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

25

Carcinoma of squamous cell origin.

Squamous cell carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

26

Benign or malignant?Lymphoma

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

27

Benign or malignant?Seminoma

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

28

The extent to which neoplastic cells resemble their normal forebears morphologically and functionally.

Differentiation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

29

This is considered a hallmark of malignancy, which literally means "to form backward".

Anaplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.177

30

These cells display marked pleomorphism, nuclei are variable and bizzare in size and shape. Chromatin is course and clumped. Mitoses are often numerous and distinctly atypical.

Anaplastic cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.177

31

This term is defined by disorderly but non-neoplastic proliferation of cells, described as a loss in uniformity of individual cells and in their architectural orientation.

Dysplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

32

Defined as dysplastic changes which involve the entire thickness of the epithelium.

Carcinoma -in- situ(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

33

True or false?Dysplasia always progress to cancer.

False(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

34

True or false?Lack of capsule in a neoplastic growth indicates malignancy.

FalseSome benign tumors are not encapsulated.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

35

This term describes the development of secondary implants discontinuous with the primary tumor, in remote tissues.

Metastasis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

36

Next to metastasis, this is the most reliable feature that distinguishes malignant from benign tumors.

Local invasiveness(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

37

Methods of dissemination of malignant neoplasms? (3)

SeedingLymphatic spreadHematogenous spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

38

This is the mode of dissemination of cancers of the ovary and CNS.

Spread by seeding(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

39

This is the mode of dissemination more typical of carcinomas.

Lymphatic spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

40

This is the mode of dissemination more typical of sarcomas.

Hematogenous spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

41

It is defined as the first lymph node in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from a primary tumor.

Sentinel lymph node(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

42

What are the most common sites of metastasis involved in hematogenous dissemination of cancer?

Liver and lungs(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.181

43

This substance is a byproduct of metal smelting, a component of alloys, electrical and semiconductor devices which could cause cancer of the lungs and skin and hemangiosarcomas.

Arsenic and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

44

This substance was formerly used for fire-resistant textiles and construction materials which could cause lung cancer and more prominently malignant mesothelioma

Asbestos(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

45

This substance is commonly used as a solvent in paint, rubber, dry cleaning, adhesives and detergents which could cause leukemias and Hodgkin lymphoma.

Benzene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

46

This substance is used as hardener for metal alloys used in aerospace applications and nuclear reactors which is commonly associated with cancer of the lung.

Beryllium and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

47

This substance is used in solders, batteries and metal alloys commonly associated with cancers of the prostate.

Cadmium and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

48

This substance is a refrigerant and used as adhesive for plastics, which causes hepatic angiosarcoma.

Vinyl chloride(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

49

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromeRB gene :__________

Retinoblastoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

50

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromep53 : ______________

Li Fraumeni Syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

51

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome__________ : Familial Adenomatous Polyposis / Colon CA

APC Gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

52

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome_________ : Breast on Ovarian Tumors

BRCA 1 gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

53

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome_________ : Breast Cancer only

BRCA 2 gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

54

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromeRET gene : _________

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 and 2(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

55

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome__________ : Colon cancer

kras gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

56

Normal cellular genes whose products promote cell proliferation.

Proto-oncogenes(TOPNOTCH)

57

Normal cellular genes whose products promote cell proliferation.

Proto-oncogenes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.188

58

It is a naturally occurring carcinogenic agent produced by some strains of Aspergillus, a mold that grows on improperly stored grains and nuts.

Aflatoxin B(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

59

There is a strong correlation between the dietary level of Aflatoxin and what type of cancer?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

60

These substances require metabolic conversion to be carcinogenic.

Indirect - acting carcinogens(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

61

These substances stimulate proliferation of the mutated cells.

Promoters(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

62

How does ionizing radiation cause cancer?

Through chromosome breakage, translocations and point mutations leading to genetic damage and carcinogenesis.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

63

What is the mechanism of action of UV rays in the formation of neoplastic cells?

UV rays induce formation of pyrimidine dimers within DNA leading to mutations.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

64

This is the only retrovirus that has been demonstrated to cause cancer in humans.

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus -1 (HTLV-1)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.211

65

HPV strains which has been implicated in the genesis of cervical and anorectal cancer.

HPV 16, 18(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.212

66

EBV has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the following cancers except:A. Burkitt lymphomaB. Lymphoma in HIV patientsC. Nasopharyngeal carcinomaD. Hodgkin lymphomaE. None of the above

E. none of the above(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.212

67

Which hepatitis virus leads to hepatocellular carcinoma?

HBV, HCV(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.213

68

This is the first bacterium to be classified as a carcinogen.

Helicobacter pylori(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.213

69

What type of cancer can be caused by H.pylori?

Gastric adenocarcinoma Gastric MALT lymphomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.214

70

These are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

Papillomas(TOPNOTCH)

71

Tumor antigens are presented on the cell surface by MHC Class I molecules to which type of T lymphocytes?

CD8+ T lymphocytes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.215

72

Single most important defining characteristic of malignancy

Metastasis (TOPNOTCH)

73

A biopsy of the stomach reveals an area of normal appearing pancreatic tissue. This is an example of what type of lesion?

Choristoma (TOPNOTCH)

74

Bronchogenic carcinoma tends to metastasize where?

Adrenals and brain (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 274

75

The most frequent form of cancer in males

Prostate cancer (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 276

76

The most frequent form of cancer in females

Breast cancer (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 276

77

Most common cause of cancer death in both male and female

Lung cancer (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 276

78

Most important infectious agent associated with cervical carcinoma and head and neck cancers.

Human papilloma virus (TOPNOTCH)

79

Leukoplakia may give rise to what type of carcinoma?

Squamous carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 279

80

Most common type of abnormality involving proto-oncogenes in human tumors

Point mutations of RAS family genes(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 286

81

Activation of ABL nonreceptor tyrosine kinase by chromosomal translocation and creation of BCR-ABL fusion gene is associated with what type of leukemia

CML, ALL(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 290

82

"Guardian of the genome", a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell cycle progression, DNA repair, cellular senescence, and apoptosis, and the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers

TP53 (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 293

83

"Gatekeeper of colonic neoplasia"; tumor suppressor that function by downregulating growth-promoting signaling pathways.

APC (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 296

84

Steps in invasion of cancer cells

Dissociation of cancer cells-Degradation of ECM-Attachment to novel ECM components-Migration and invasion of tumor cells. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 306

85

Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by familial carcinomas of the colon predominantly cecum and proximal colon.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 314

86

Syndrome causing colon cancer resulting from defects in a family of genes encoding a group of proteins that work together to carry out DNA mismatch repair.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 314

87

The increased incidence of skin cancer following UV light exposure associated with xeroderma pigmentosus is caused by:

Disorder of DNA repair/inability to repair pyrimidine dimers(HNPCC) syndrome (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 314

88

Pathogenesis of this tumor involves the translocation resulting to overactivity of MYC gene

Burkitt lymphoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 317

89

Philadelphia chromosome is characteristic of what type of leukemia

CML(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 317

90

An important cause of benign warts, cervical cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer

HPV (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 329

91

Implicated in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma

H. pylori(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 329

92

Cytokine implicated in cancer cachexia

TNF-alpha(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

93

The most common endocrinopathy ; usually seen in small-cell lung carcinoma

Cushing syndrome(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

94

The most common paraneoplastic syndrome related to cancer; seen in patients with squamous cell carcinoma

Hypercalcemia(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

95

The most important humoral factor associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcemia of malignancy.

PTHRP(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

96

Tumor marker:Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

Calcitonin(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

97

Tumor marker:Trophoblastic tumors

Human chorionic gonadotropin(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

98

Tumor marker: liver cell cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumor

Alpha fetoprotein(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

99

Tumor markers: prostate cancer

PSA and prostatic acid phosphatase (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p.337

100

Tumor marker: pheochromocytoma

Catecholamine(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

101

Tumor marker: ovarian cancer

CA-125(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

102

Cervical biopsy of a 35 y/o female with cervical erosion shows squamous epithelium that exhibit atypia, pleomorphism, disorderly spatial arrangement. This adaptive response is:

Dysplasia (TOPNOTCH)

103

RAS oncogene qualitatively changes function of proto-oncogene through which form of mutation?

Point mutations (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 286

104

Chemical carcinogen implicated in the causation of mesothelioma

Asbestos(TOPNOTCH)

105

A 56 year old woman with a breast mass has a preoperative diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma by core needle biopsy, with no palpable axillary lymph nodes. She undergoes surgery where her breast mass is injected with a blue dye, and the first axillary node that takes up the dye is submitted to pathology. Which method is next done on the node if the surgeon wants to know within minutes if there is metastasis? (A) fine needle aspiration (B) frozen section (C) immunohistochemistry (D) flow cytometry

frozen section (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed, p 220

106

A 25 year old male with an intranasal mass undergoes a tissue biopsy that shows malignant round cells. The pathologist needs to know if it is an undifferentiated carcinoma or a lymphoma. What can be done to differentiate? (A) Frozen section (B) Immunohistochemistry (C) Flow cytometry (D) serologic tumor markers

Immunohistochemistry (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed pp220-221

107

A 12 year old female presents with pallor and gum bleeding. A complete blood count with peripheral smear shows numerous blasts. What is needed to be done on her bone marrow for a more precise diagnosis? (A) frozen section (B) papanicolau smear (C) aspiration and flow cytometry (D) serologic tumor markers

aspiration and flow cytometry (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p 221