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Flashcards in Victimisation Deck (27):

What 3 features does positivist victimology have?

1) It aims to identify factors that produce patterns in victimisation
2) Focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence
3) Aims to identify victims who have contributed to their own victimisation


Explain victim proneness

The social and psychological factors of victims that make them vulnerable


What 3 characteristics did Hans Von Hentig identify that are likely to make a person more vulnerable to becoming a victim?

1) Female
2) Elderly
3) 'Mentally subnormal'


Name a lifestyle factor that can contribute to becoming a victim

Individuals who ostentatiously display their wealth


What did Wolfgang's study of 588 homicides find?

That 26% of the homicides involved victim precipitation


What is victim precipitation?

Where the victims triggered the events leading to the crime, e.g. being the first to use violence leading up to a homicide


What are 4 evaluation point of positivist victimology? (1 positive, 3 negative)

1) Wolfgang shows the importance of the victim-offender relationship and the fact that in many homicides, it is a matter of chance which party becomes the victim
2 Identifies patterns of interpersonal victimisation, but ignores wider structural influencing victimisation, such as poverty and patriarchy
3) Can easily tip over into victim blaming
4) Ignores situations where the victim is unaware of their victimisation, e.g. environmental crimes


What 2 elements does critical victimology focus on?

1) Structural factors such as poverty and patriarchy
2) The state's power to apply of deny the label of victim


What do Mawby and Walklate say that victimisation is a form of?

Structural powerlessness


Give 2 examples of how the state denies the victim of label in a way that benefits the powerful

1) In rape cases the state often denies the label of victim to the woman and this protects the man, the powerful one.
2) 'Safety crimes', where employers violations of the law lead to injury of workers, are often explained away as the fault of 'accident prone' workers, protecting the powerful employer.


What happens in the hierarchy of victimisation?

The powerless are most likely to be victimised but are less likely to have this recognised by the state


What are 2 evaluation points of critical victimology? (1 positive and 1 negative)

1) Valuable in drawing attention to the way that 'victim' status is constructed power and how this benefits the powerful at the expense of the powerless
2) Disregards the role that victims play in bringing victimisation on themselves, e.g. not making their home secure, or their own offending


What are the 4 social groups involved in the patterns of victimisation?

1) Class
2) Age
3) Gender
4) Ethnicity


What are the patterns of victimisation relating to class?

- Poorest are most likely to become victims of crime
- Homeless people are 12 times more likely to experience violence than then general population


What are the patterns of victimisation relating to age?

- Infants under the age of 1 are at most risk of being murdered
- Teenagers are at most risk of assault, sexual harassment, theft and abuse at home
- The elderly are at more risk of abuse, e.g. at nursing homes where victimisation is less visible


What are the patterns of victimisation relating to ethnicity?

- Ethnic minority groups are at greater risk of becoming victims of crime in general than whites
- Ethnic minorities are most likely to report feeling under-protected yet over-controlled


What are the pattern of victimisation relating to gender?

- Males are at greater risk of becoming victims of violent crimes, 70% of homicide victims are male
- Women are at greater risk of domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking and harassment, people trafficking.


What does repeat victimisation refer to?

The fact that if you have been a victim once then you are very likely to become a victim again


What did the British Crime Survey find in relation to repeat victimisation?

That 60% of the general population have not yet been victims of crime in a given year, yet a mere 4% of the population are victims of 44% of all crimes in that given year


What physical and emotional impacts may crime have on victims?

1) Disturbed sleep
2) Feelings of helplessness


What may crime create?

Indirect victims, such as family and friends


What does Pynoos find about indirect victims?

That children who are witnesses to a sniper attack continue to have grief related dreams a year after the event


What is secondary victimisation?

The idea that in addition to the impact of the crime itself, individuals may suffer further victimisation at the hands of the criminal justice system


What do feminists say about secondary victimisation?

That rape victims are often so poorly treated by the police and courts that it amounts to a double violation


Explain fear of victimisation

Crime may create fear of becoming a victim, e.g. attacks of violence at night may prevent women from going out late


What do some sociologists argue about fear of victimisation?

That is irrational, e.g. women are more afraid of going out for fear of attack, yet it is young men who are the main victims of violence from strangers


Why do feminists attack the emphasis on 'fear of crime'?

They argue that it focuses on women's passivity and psychological state, when we should be focusing on their safety, i.e. on the structural threat of patriarchal violence they face