VII - Genetic and Pediatric Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in VII - Genetic and Pediatric Diseases Deck (184)
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31

Enzyme deficient in classic PKU.

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.234

32

An autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism characterized by jaundice, liver damage, cataracts, neural damage, vomiting and diarrhea.

Galactosemia(TOPNOTCH)

33

Deficiency of this enzyme can also cause symptoms of phenylketonuria due to decreased synthesis of a cofactor in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.

Dihydrobiopteridine reductase (DHPR)Enzyme responsible for the reduction of Dihydrobiopterin (BH2) to Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4).(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.234

34

Enzyme deficient in galactosemia.

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.235

35

Lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of glucosylceramidase.

Gaucher disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.236

36

Lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of B-Hexosaminidase A.

Tay-Sachs disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.236

37

Lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of a-Galactosidase A.

Fabry disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.236

38

Lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of Sphingomyelinase.

Niemann-Pick disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.236

39

Lysosomal storage disease common among Ashkenazi Jews characterized by motor weakness, mental retardation, blindness, neurologic dysfunction and death.

Tay-Sachs disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.236

40

Lysosomal storage disease characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in mononuclear phagocytic cells, which enlarge, forming "wrinkled tissue paper" cytoplasmic appearance.

Gaucher disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.238

41

What do you call the pathognomonic cell characterized by "wrinkled tissue paper" cytoplasmic appearance.

Gaucher cell(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.238

42

These disorders result from the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in many tissues including the liver, spleen, heart, blood vessels, brain, cornea and joints. Affected patients have coarse facial features.

Mucopolysaccharidoses(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.238

43

Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by corneal clouding, coronary arterial and valvular depositions, which occurs due to deficiency of a-L-iduronidase, leading to accumulation of dermatan and heparan sulfate.

Hurler syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.239

44

An X-linked mucopolysaccharidosis which is due to a deficiency of L-iduronate sulfatase. Symptoms are similar to Hurler syndrome, but without corneal clouding.

Hunter syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.239

45

Glycogen storage disease characterized by hepatomegaly, renomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia, leading to gout and skin xanthomas.

von Gierke's disease (Type I)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.240

46

von Gierke's disease is due to a deficiency of what enzyme?

Glucose-6-phosphatase(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.240

47

Glycogen storage disease characterized by accumulation of glycogen in skeletal muscles leading to painful cramps during strenuous exercise and myoglobinuria.

McArdle syndrome (type V)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.240

48

Glycogen storage disease characterized by mild hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, muscle hypotonia, and may lead to cardiorespiratory failure.

Pompe disease (type II)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.240

49

Enzyme deficient in McArdle syndrome.

Muscle phosphorylase(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.240

50

These disorders may result from alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes and may affect autosomes or sex chromosomes.

Cytogenetic disorders(TOPNOTCH)

51

These disorders may result from alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes and may affect autosomes or sex chromosomes.

Cytogenetic disorders(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.241

52

It is a term used to describe the presence of two or more populations of cells in the same individual.

Mosaicism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.242

53

This refers to a lack of one chromosome of the normal complement (e.g. XO).

Monosomy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.244

54

This refers to the presence of three copies of a particular chromosome, instead of two.

Trisomy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.244

55

This mechanism occurs due to the failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis stage 1 or 2.

Nondisjunction(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.243

56

This mechanism implies transfer of a part of one chromosome to another chromosome.

Translocation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.243

57

This mechanism involves loss of a portion of a chromosome.

Deletion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.243

58

Patients with this syndrome have severe mental retardation, flat facial profile, epicanthic folds, cardiac malformations, increased risk of leukemia, and premature development of Alzheimer's disease.

Down syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.244

59

Down syndrome is also called _________

Trisomy 21(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.245

60

Trisomy 18 is also called ________ syndrome.

Edwards syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.245