Diseases that affect the vine can be broadly categorized into what 4 main groups?
How do fungal diseases manifest?
Fungal diseases manifest as mildew or mold and are typically associated with warm and damp climates, attacking either the root system or the canopy of the grapevine
- img. Downy Mildew
How are fungal spores spread?
Fungal spores are spread by wind and rain and a disease, once entrenched in a vine, may infect an entire vineyard
What are some of the most worrisome fungal diseases?
downy mildew, powdery mildew
- Originated in America, arriving in Europe on cuttings in the 19th century
What are phytoplasma diseases also known as?
What are phytoplasma diseases caused by?
- Pathogens similar to bacteria, yet they are symptomatically similar to viral diseases and, like viruses, must be spread through an insect vector or rootstock grafting
What is fungal disease Powdery Mildew also known as?
What is fungal disease Downy Mildew also known as?
What fungal disease is also called dead arm?
What is fungal disease Esca also known as?
- Esca (Black Measles) is one of the earliest known fungal grapevine diseases
Where and when were phytoplasma diseases first recorded?
- May cause widespread difficulties in the 21st century
Name 6 examples of Fungal Diseases.
- Powdery Mildew (Oidium)
- Downy Mildew (Peronospora)
- Eutypa Dieback: aka dead arm
- Esca (Black Measles)
- Black Rot
- Bunch Rot
Name 3 examples of Bacterial Diseases.
- Pierce’s Disease
- Crown Gall (Black Knot)
- Bacterial Blight
Name 2 examples of Viral Diseases.
- Leafroll Virus
- Fanleaf Degeneration
Name an example of a Phytoplasma Disease.
- Form of grapevine yellows
- 1st appeared in Armagnac in 1949
- Spread by Leafhopper insects and propagation of infected vines
- Initial delayed budbreak and slow shoot growth, eventually causes bunches to fall off the vine and berries to shrivel
- Discolors leaves, causes pustules and cracks to form, and may kill young vines
- No cure exists, although insecticides may be used to control leafhopper insect populations and retard its spread