Flashcards in VIRAL ILLNESSES IN CHILDREN Deck (67):
What is does the term 'exanthem' mean when used in the context of viral exanthem?
Exanthem is applied to diseases in which a rash is a prominent manifestation.
What is the organism that causes measles?
Why are outbreaks of measles increasingly being seen in the UK?
Because the immunization rate fell after public concerns about the safety of the MMR vaccine with regard to increase likelihood of developing autism. This was subsequently found to be a false link.
What are the clinical features of measles?
Prodrome: irritable, conjunctivitis, fever
Koplik spots: white spots ('grain of salt') on buccal mucosa
Rash: starts behind ears then to whole body, discrete erythematous maculopapular rash becoming blotchy & confluent
How is measles transmitted and what is the incubation period?
What are the acute complications of measles?
What is the very rare immune mediated neurodegenerative disease that can occur 7-10 years after measles infection?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
How do you definitively diagnose measles?
Buccal swab analysis
Specific IgM in serum samples ideally taken 3 days after development of rash
How do you manage someone with measles?
This viral disease is managed purely symptomatically. It is however a notifiable disease.
What is the other name for rubella?
What is the virus that is responsible for rubella?
What is the most important complication of rubella?
Devastating effect on the fetus in cases of maternal infection in early gestation
What are the clinical features of rubella?
Rash: pink maculopapular, initially on face before spreading to whole body, usually fades by the 3-5 day
Lymphadenopathy: suboccipital and postauricular
What are the rare complications of rubella in children?
Arthritis of small joints
How is rubella diagnosed?
It is usually a clinical diagnosis based on features of the rash. However, this sometimes makes it difficult to differentiate from other viral exanthems.
Detection of rubella specific IgM can be used to confirm diagnosis if picture is unclear.
What are the main features of damage caused by congenital rubella where the mother contracted the virus in the first 10 weeks of gestation?
Congenital heart disease (PDA, pulmonary stenosis)
Cataracts, glaucoma, retinopathy
What are the main features of damage caused by congenital rubella where the mother contracted the virus in weeks 13-16?
An element of hearing impairment
How should women contemplating pregnancy be managed with regard to rubella?
Screened for antirubella IgG. Those pregnant women found to be seronegative should have the vaccine AFTER delivery. Those in whom you suspect a high likelihood of congenital rubella should be consulted with regard to termination.
What is the organism responsible for erythema infectiosum?
What are the other names used for erythema infectiosum?
Slapped cheek syndrome
How does transmission of parvovirus B19 (erythema infectiosum) occur?
What are the clinical features of erythema infectiosum?
'Slapped-cheek' rash spreading to proximal arms and extensor surfaces
In what 2 groups of patients is erythema infectiosum (parvovirus B19) particularly dangerous?
Virus suppresses erythropoiesis for up to 7 days, therefore it is particular dangerous in children with haemolytic anaemias such as sickle cell or hereditary spherocytosis. In these patients, parvovirus infection can cause an aplastic crisis.
Pregnant women are another group in which this virus is dangerous. Infection during pregnancy can cause hydrops fetalis and death.
How is the diagnosis of erythema infectiosum (slapped-cheek disease) confirmed?
Specific IgM can be detected 2 weeks after exposure
How many human herpes viruses have been identified?
What is the most common clinical manifestation of human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in childhood?
Other than gingivitis, what are the common clinical features of an HSV-1 infection in a child?
Vesicular lesions on the lips, gums, tongue and hard palate which might progress to extensive ulceration
What are the less common sites for a HSV-1 infection?
Eyes - dendritic ulcers in the cornea
Skin - causing eczema herpeticum in children with eczema
Fingers - causing herpetic whitlow
Brain - herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE)
Would you use aciclovir to treat HSV-1 infection?
Only really if the presentation is herpes simplex encephalitis. Oral aciclovir has only marginal effects in gingivostomatitis and IV fluids are usually enough.
When is herpes simplex virus 2 particularly dangerous?
Transmission of HSV 2 from the genital tract of a mother who is often asymptomatic can result in neonatal death.
What are the neonatal infection sites of HSV-2?
How do we treat HSV-2 infection?
High dose IV aciclovir and supportive care. Caesarian section is indicated when a mother with active genital herpes goes into labour.
What is the other more commonly used name for herpes simplex virus 3?
What is the common childhood disease caused by HSV-3 (varicella zoster)?
What is the incubation period of chickenpox?
What are the clinical features of chickenpox?
Fever initially which disappears with development of an
Itchy, rash starting on head/trunk before spreading. Initially macular then papular then vesicular
Systemic upset is usually mild coryzal symptoms
What are the complications of chickenpox?
Secondary bacterial infection of the skin
Death in immunocompromised children and neonatal babies
What might indicate that a secondary bacterial infection had developed on the back of chickenpox?
Fever persisting beyond the outbreak of the rash
During what period of chickenpox infection are children infectious?
2 days before the eruption of the rash until all the vesicles have crusted over
Chickenpox is normally treated symptomatically. Which children would you treat curatively and how would you treat them?
Immunosuppressed children - varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG)
New born babies whose mother developed varicella in 7 days before or after birth - VZIG
Severe chickenpox - aciclovir
What is the more common name for human herpes virus 4?
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
What are the main sites of infection by EBV?
EBV has a particular tropism for the epithelial cells of the oropharynx and nasopharynx
Also for B lymphocytes - hence why it is involved in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma
What is the incubation period for EBV?
What are the clinical features of glandular fever?
Petechiae on the palate
Sparse maculopapular rash
What investigations might you do to confirm glandular fever?
Blood film - atypical lymphocytes
Slide agglutination test - Monospot
Specific EBV serology
What are the other causes of infectious mononucleosis?
What is the more common name for human herpes virus 5?
How is cytomegalovirus usually transmitted? Name 5 routes
From mother to fetus via the placenta in utero
Via oral route
Via genital route
What is CMV as a congenital infection a risk factor for?
Sensorineural hearing loss
What is the organism that causes mumps?
How is mumps spread/
What are the clinical features of mumps?
Fever, malaise, muscular pain
Parotitis ('earache', 'pain on eating'): unilateral initially then becomes bilateral in 70%
When are patients with mumps infectious?
A few days before onset of symptoms until 3 after enlargement of parotid gland subsides.
What are the important complications of mumps?
Used to be one of the most common causes of aseptic meningitis.
Where is poliovirus still endemic?
Africa and Indian subcontinent
What is the route of transmission of poliovirus?
What are the clinical features of polio?
90% are asymptomatic
5% have fever, headache, malaise
2% aseptic meningitis
Under 2% - paralytic polio - virus attacks the anterior horn of the spinal cord
What are the causes of viral hepatitis?
Hepatitis virus A, B, C, D, E or G
Yellow fever virus
(For details of viral hepatitis, see the deck under Gastro)
What is the disease seen in children that is characterised by a rash and caused by coxsackie A16 virus?
Hand, foot and mouth disease
What are the features of hand, foot and mouth disease?
Mild systemic upset: sore throat, fever
Vesicles in the mouth and on the palms and soles of the feet
What is the virus responsible for roseola infantum?
Normally human herpes virus 6
Can also be caused by herpes virus 7
What are the other names for roseola infantum?
What is the incubation period for roseola infantum?
Children in what age range are typically affected by roseola infantum?
6 months to 2 years
What are the features of roseola infantum?
High fever lasting a few days
Followed by a maculopapular rash
Febrile convulsions occur in around 10-15%
Diarrhoea and cough are also commonly seen
What are the rare complications of roseola infantum?