viral infections of the skin soft tissue, bone, muscle and joints I Flashcards Preview

Micro last plus one anatomy 5 > viral infections of the skin soft tissue, bone, muscle and joints I > Flashcards

Flashcards in viral infections of the skin soft tissue, bone, muscle and joints I Deck (37):
1

papilloma

- benign growth of the skin or mucous membranes

2

macule

- small DISCOLORED patch of skin that forms an area distinct from the normal surrounding surface

3

papule

- CIRCUMSCRIBED RAISED PORTION OF THE SKIN

4

vesicle

-small pouch of CLEAR fluid

5

pustule

full of pus

6

warts

- hyperkearatotic
-cutaneous are often painless if cutaneous
- CAUSED BY HPV
-LOOK CAULIFLOWER LIKE

7

Name for common wart
plantar wart
flat warts

verruca vulgaris
verruca plantaris
verruca plana

8

HPV

- nonenvveloped
dsDNA
replication depends on differentiation status of the tissue

9

what layer of the skin would you expect to find a new HPV infection

suprabasal
-infected at basal layer, virion matures as moves up

10

where does the bump come from in warts?

- expanding of all layers due to proliferation
-proliferation initiated so that the virus can use the cell's machinery to replicate itself
-specifically- HPV-7 and HPV-6 are used to inactivate tumor suppressor cells Rb and P53 respectively causing the cells to go into S phase more and reprematurely

11

what are the main cutaneous HPV viruses divided into common and plantar warts

-common- 2,3,10
-plantar- 1.4

12

transmission of HPV? incubation of HPV? diagnosis?

-HPV- direct contact or with contact with surfaces
- 3-4 months
- diagnosis- appearance-koilodal cells (large nuclei with halo/nonstained around them) and hyperkeratosis

13

Treatment/prevention for HPV

- common and plantar warts usually spontaneous regress after a few months- 2 yrs
-wart removal- cryotherapy, cytotoxic, chemicals, surgical removal
-> NOTE HPV 16, 18, 6, 11: do not protect against cutaneous warts

14

Molluscum Contagiosum

- painless, pearly, umbilicated, nodules
-seen in genitals (sexual-for adults), hands on kids via contact
-has concavity
- in microscope, it has LARGE AMOUNT IN CELL
- large eosiophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (molluscum bodies)
- poxviridae
-large dsDNA genome
- replicates within cytoplasm - UNIQUE

15

incubation and transmission of molluscum contagiosum

-14-50 days
- transmission via direct contact with lesions or fomaite transmission thru a towel or something

16

treatment of molluscum contagiosum

- often resolution with in 2-12 months without treatment
- removal thru surgery or cryotherapy

17

Herpes labialis

- cold sores
- painful/[painless and found in vermillion boarder of lip
-a reactivation of the herpes simplex virus
- HOWEVER, AT PRIMARY INFECTION YOU CAN GET A WIDE RAGE OF INFECTIONS LIKE WIDESPREAD INFECTION OF THE MOUTH INCLUDING gingicomastitis (in gums)
-herpes simplex virus

18

Herpes Simplex keratitis

- leading cause of infectious blindness in US
- initial infection causes conjunctivitis that takes weeks to heal
- recurrent disease lead to corneal opacity
-caused by leading simplex

19

herpes simplex encephalitis

- rare
- mortality rate over 30% even with antivirals
- commonly leads to neuro probs
-caused by herpes simplex virus

20

herpetic whitlow

- lesions in the digits
- from herpes simplex

21

what is the herpes simplex virus

- dsDNA
-latent and lytic phases of the life cycle exist

22

during a herpes outbreak, what is the productive phase of the life cycle?

-lytic

23

cold sore pathology

- HSV virus comes and infects the epithelium of the mouth, and replication occurs
-some of the virus gets into the sensory neuron and stays latent there
-when cold sore goes away and there is stress via emotional or traumatic, we get the virus coming out of neuron for outbreak

24

what is HSV-1 and HSV2 known to cause?

1 = mouth lesions
2= genital lesions
90% of the population has them just not everyone shows it

25

what is prescribed for herpes? how does it work?

FOSCARNET AND ACYCLOVIR
-acyclovir works like this:
-> relies on the viruse's thymidine kinase to phosphorylate it converting it to acyclovir monophosphate
-> use cellular kinases to make acyclovir triphosphate which is a nucleotide mimic that allows it to inhibit the viral DNA polymerase incorporation into viral DNA to get CHAIN TERMINATION

26

Varicella

-chicken pox
-lesions on trunk, scalp and face most
-fever and lesions last approx. 5 days

27

what is important to note about the lifecycle of varicella?

- it is an evolutionized process
- starts as vesicles -> pustules -> scabs (healing)
- GET "CROPS OF LESIONS"- there are multiple evolutionary stages in a single area of the body

28

though varicella is seen all over, where is it NOT?

- soles of feet or palms

29

what are some complications of varicella

- from itching, can inoculate self with bacteria as a secondary infection
- pneumonia - can be due to the viral infection of the lungs or a secondary bacterial infection -> viral has worse outcome and is attributed to MOST OF THE DEATHS FROM CHICKEN POX

30

chicken pox and pregnancy
first 20 weeks of gestation
vs
infection late gestation

- infection during the first 20 weeks- low birth weight, skin, scarring, encephalitis, chorioretinitis and microcephaly

- infection late in gestation or right after birth- gives lesions on viscera and disseminated infection =worse!!

31

herpes zoster

- causes shingles- reactivation of VSV
-epidemiology- elderly and immunosuppressed
-get paresthesia (pins and needles) before break out
- GET VESICULAR LESIONS ON FACE AND TRUNK UNILATERALLY
-FLOWS DERMATOMES
- get fever and malaise

32

postherpetic neuralia

- herpes zoster
- Shingles outbreak that causes pain long after lesions have resolved

33

what is varicella-zoster virus?

- dsDNA
enveloped
- herpesviradae fam
- LATENT INFECTION- USUALLY IN THE DORSAL ROUTE OR TRIGEMINAL
-one serotype

34

how is varicella-zoster transmitted? incubation time? diagnosis?

-tx- via lesions or respiratory secretions
-incubation time- 2 wks
- diagnosed via TZANCK SMEAR, antibodies, clinical analyses

35

varicella vaccine

- PREVENTS PRIMARY INFECTIONS
-LIVE ATTENUATED
- grown in tissue culture
-combined with measles, mumps, rubella
-first dose - 12-15 months old
-second dose- 4-6 years old

36

zoster vaccine

- to protect against from VZV REACTIVATIONS
- SAME LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINE WITH HIGHER TITER
-recommended for all adults over 60regardless
-

37

when are anti-herpetic drugs used on patients to treat varicella zoster? what drugs are used?

- when patient obtains a primary infection late in the their life
-acyclovir
-varicella is not as susceptible to acyclovir as HSV