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Flashcards in Virus Chart Deck (42):
1

Poliovirus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesisi:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(picornaviridae family)

+ ss RNA

Poliomyelitis

fecal-oral

sequencing by RT-PCR by the CDC

Vireia, invasion of the CNS, lytic destruction of anterior horn cells

Live-attenuated oral, killed-virus inection

NO anti-viral therapy

Long-lived protective immunity or paralysis

2

Coxsackie Virus 

 

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesisi:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(picornaviridae)

+ SS RNA

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Fecal-oral

Clinical diagnosis or RT-PCR

Viremia, target skin, cell death

No vaccines

No anti-viral therapy

Long-lived protective immunity

3

D68

 

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

+ ss RNA

Respiratory infection 

Respiratory and contact with contaminated surfaces

PCR and/or isolate virus and culture for cytopathic effect

Viremia --> RTI

No vaccines

Pleoconaril (severe cases)

Long-lived protective immunity

 

4

Hep A Virus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(pico family)

+ ss RNA

Hepatitis

fecal-oral

IgM serology by antibody capture

Viremia, target liver

Killed Virus Vaccine

(vaccine during prodrone period of infection)

Long-lived protective immunity

5

Rotavirus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Reovirus family)

DS Segmented RNA

Diarrhea (#1)

Fecal Oral

Viral antigen in stoll detected by EIA

Local replication, enterotoxin production

2 Vaccines: Rotateq and Rotaric

No anti-viral therapy

Short-term immunity, less severe re-infection

6

Noroviruses (norwalk)

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Calicivirus family / norwalk)

+ ss RNA

Diarrhea

fecal-oral

RT-PCR by film array

Lysis and shedding of epithelial cells

No vaccines

No anti-viral therapy

Type specific immunity

7

Influenza Virus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Orthomyxovirus)

- RNA, segmented enveloped

"The flu"

Respiratory

Film array RT-PCR assay

Local replication in respiratory tract, necrosis of epithelial cells

2: Life-attenuated and killed-virus

Amantidine, neuroaminidase inhibitors

Annual reinfection due to antigenic shift and drift

8

Rhinoviruses

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Pico)

+ RNA

common cold

Respiratory

film array RT-PCR assay

Lytic replication in the respiratory epithelium

no vaccines

no anti-viral therapy

type-specific immunity

9

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(paramyxovirus family)

- ss RNA, enveloped

Severe lower respiratory tract infection in children

Respiratory

Film array RT-PCR assay

Local replication in respiratory tract, necrosis of epithelial cells

Vaccines-preventative monoclonal antibody, palivizumab

No anti-viral therapy

short-term immunity; less severe re-infection

10

Parainfluenza Virus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(paramyxovirus)

-ss RNA, enveloped

Croup

Respiratory

Clinical Dx, RT-PCR

Local rep in respiratory tract, necrosis of epithelial cells

NO vaccines

TX: glucocorticoids for severe cases

short-term immunity

11

Mumps Virus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

 

(Paramyxovirus)

- ss RNA, enveloped

Mumps

Respiratory (befor the parotitis)

Clinical dx, confirmed by serology or sequencing performed by public health dept

Replication in respiratory tract, viremia, targeting parotid gland

Vaccine: Live-attenuated / MMR

No therapy

Long-term immunity

12

Rubella Virus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Togavirus Group)

+ ss RNA, enveloped

dz: rubella, german measles (congenital rubella syndrome)

Respiratory, mother to fetus (torches infection)

dx: serology

Replication in respiratory tract, viremia, rash

Live-atenuated vaccine / MMR

No therapy

Long-term immunity, congenital rubella syndrome

 

13

Parvovirus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

ss DNA

Erythemia infectiosums (5th disease) / slap rash / tOrches infection

Respiratory

Clinical dz, serology or PCR of serum from aplastic crisis

Replicates in erythroid precursor nuclei

NO vaccines

Tx: IV-IG for aplastic crisis in immunocomp pt

Long-term immunity

14

HIV:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

+RNA lentivirus

progress to AIDS

Mother to child (torcHes), transfusion, IVDA, sexual

Srology + confirmation by western blot; RT-PCR for viral load in response to HAART; sequencing to look fordrug resistance

Depletion of CD4+ T cells

NO vaccine

HAART - mutiple RT-inhibitors and protease inhibitors

Suseptability to opportunisitic infections, progression to AIDS, death 

15

Herpes Simplex Virus 1:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, enveloped

Cold sores, encephalitis

Contact

clinical pres or PCR from infected tissue

Replicated in epithelia, latenti in trigeminal ganglia, reactivation 

no vaccines

acyclovir and priteliver

Latent infection with recurrence

16

Herpes Simplex Virus II

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA enveloped

Genital lesions, Neonatal herpes

Contact

Clinical presentation, PCR of infected tissue, culture virus from lesion

Replicated in epithelia, latent in sacral ganglia, reactivation

No vaccines

Tx: acyclovir, Priteliver

Latent infection w/recurrence, neonatal death or neurological impairment or death

17

Varicella-Zostar Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, enveloped

Chicken pox/shingles

Respiratory

Clinical presentation 

Replicated in respiratory epithelium, viremia, rash, latenti in dorsal root ganglia, reaccurence as shingles can occur

Live-attenuated

Acylovir 

Latent infection with reacurrence as shingles

18

Epstein-Barr Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, enveloped

Infectious mononucleosis (mono)

Respiratory, saliva

Monospot (heterophile Ab) and/or serology for IgM to VCA

Replicated and latent in B cells

No vaccines

No TX

Latent infection with sporadic shedding, burkitts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma

19

Cytomegalovirus (CMV):

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, enveloped

Post-transplant pneumonia, neonatal CMV (tOrches)

Contact - saliva, secretions, mother to newborn

PCR, serology, histology

Infects epithelium, cell proliferation, latency in T cells, macrophages and other cells, sporadic shedding

No vaccine

Tx: ganciclvir, letermovir 

20

Human Herpes Virus 6 & 7:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, enveloped

Roseola, exanthem subitum

Respiratory

Clinical Presentation

Sudden onset of fever, fever resolves THEN red rash appears, latency in T cells 

NO vaccine

NO treatment

Latent infection

21

Human Herpes Virus 8:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, enveloped

Kaposi's Sarcoma

Sexual contact

Clincal presentaiton and PCR

T cells control infection, activation occurs during immunosuppression

NO vaccine

NO tx

Sarcoma lesions in AIDS patients unless treated with HAART

22

Papilloma Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA

Warts, cervical CA

contact

Clinical presentation, hybridization/pap smear

Virus production associated with cell differentiation

Virus-like particle vaccine

No anti-viral therapy

Type 16, 18, 31 cervical CA

23

Hepatitis B Virus

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

Partial dsDNA, enveloped

Hepatitis

Mother to child, transfusion, IVDA, sexual

Serology by antibody capture

Viremia, targeting of the liver, persists in cells

Subunit vaccine

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

Hepatocellular CA

24

Hepatitis C Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

+ss RNA, enveloped

Hepatitis

Transfusion, IVDA, contact with blood

RT-PCR, sequencing for genotype, serology

Viremia, targeting of hte liver, persistant infection

No vaccine

 Direct acting anti-virals (DAAs)

Hepatocellular CA

25

Hepatitis Delta Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

ss RNA viroid, enveloped

Fulminant Hepatitis (esp in preg. women)

Mother to child, transfusion, IVDA, sexual

serology by antibody capture

Co-infection with HBV (MUST), viremia, targeting of the liver, fulminant disease

HBV subunit vaccine

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

Chronic hepatitis or death

26

Hepatitis E Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

+ RNA

Hepatitis (developing world)

Fecal-Oral

Serology or RT-PCR by the public health dept

Viremia, targeting the liver

NO vaccine

 NO anti-viral TX

Long-lived immunity, high mortality during preg

27

Yellow Fever Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Flavivirus group)

+ ss RNA, enveloped

Yellow Fever

Mosquito Bite (w/urban cycle)

Clinical dx, confirmation by serology by PHD

Viremia, extensive replication and cell death in liver

Vaccine: Live-attenuated

No anti-viral tx

Long-term immunity or death

28

Dengue Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Flavivirus)

+ ss RNA

Hemorrhagic Fever/Break Bone Fever

Mosquito bite

ELISA for NS1, serology or RT-PCR

Immunopathogenesis causing fever and rash

NO vaccine

NO tx

Antibody dependent enhancement of disease if infected with another serotype

29

West Nile Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(flavivirus)

+SS RNA, enveloped

Encephalitis, meningitis

Mosquito Bite

RT-PCR and serology

Viremia, CNS infection 

NO vaccine

NO anti-viral TX

Immunity or death (more neurologic dz in the elderly)

30

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(flavivirus)

+ss RNA, enveloped

Encephalitis

Mosquito bite

PT-PCR, serology

Viremia, CNS infection 

NO vaccine

NO tx

Long-term immunity or death (rare)

31

Chikugunya Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Togavirus)

+ ss RNA, enveloped

Chikugunya fever, myalgias, arthralgias

Insect vector

Serology or PT-PCR by the pHD

Viremia, polyarthralgia, rash

NO vaccine

NO tx

Polyarthralgia can last weeks-months; recovery

32

EEE, WEE, VEE (equine encephalitis):

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(togavirus)

+ SS RNA, enveloped

Encephalitis

Mosquito bite

Serology, RT PCR by PHD

Viremia, CNS infection

vaccine made for horses only

NO tx

Long-term immmunity or death

33

California Encephalitis Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Bunyavirus)

-/+ Segmented RNA, enveloped

Encephalitis

Mosquito bite

Serology

Viremia, CNS infection 

NO vaccine

NO tx

Long-term immunity

 

34

Colorado Tick Fever Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(reovirus)

DS segmented RNA

fever and rash

tick bite

serology by the PHD

Viremia, inflammation and rash, recovery

NO vaccine

NO tx

Long-term immunity

35

Hantanvirus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(bunyavirus)

-/+ segmented RNA, enveloped

Pulmonary sundrome

Inhalation of secretions from infected animals

Serology by PHD

Viral replication in respiratory tract, inflammtion, pneumonia

NO vaccine

NO anti-viral therapy

Long-term immunity and latency

36

Ebolavirus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(FILOvirus)

-SS RNA, enveloped

Hemorrhagic fever

Direct contact with blood or body fluids

RT-PCR from seralogy

Viremia, replication in all cells, cell death, organ failure

NO vaccine

Supportive care, non-FDA approved specific ab

Long-term immunity, persistant infection or death

 

37

Coronavirus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

+ SS RNA

common cold, gastroenteritis, SARS, MERS

Respiratory, fecal-oral

Film array PCR

Local replication and cell death

NO vaccine

NO anti-viral tx

Pandemic potential of emerging viruses like SARS and MERS, type specific immunity

38

Adenoviruses:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

DNA, naked

Multiple UR syndromes, conjunctivitis (pink eye)

Respiratory

Film array PCR

Replication in epithelial cless, viremia

Live-attenuated (for military only)

NO anti-viral TX

long-term immunity

39

Smallpox Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(poxvirus)

DNA enveloped

smallpox

Respiratory

Clinical Dx

viremia and rash

Live-attenuated vaccine

NO anti-viral TX

Eradicated, candidate vaccine vector

 

40

Rabies Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(Rhabdovirus)

- ss RNA, enveloped

Rabies

Bite or contact with secretions from racoon, skunk or bat

Detection of viral antigens in the brain; RT-PCR for genotype

Replication in muscle, spread from nerves to brain

Vaccine: Killed-virus

Anti-rabies Ig post-exposure, no therapy on onset

41

Molluscum Contagiosum:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(poxvirus)

DNA enveloped

Molluscum contagiosum 

Contact

Clinical dx from pearl-like lesions

Painless lesions that take months to resolve

NO vaccine

NO anti-viral tx

Long-term immunity, persistant in AIDS patients

42

Measles Virus:

Genetic Information:

Major Disease:

Transmission:

Diagnosis:

Basics of Pathogenesis:

Vaccines:

Anti-viral Therapy:

Long-term Consequences:

(paramyxovirus)

- ss RNA, envloped

Measles

Respiratory

Clinical, confirmed by serology or sequencying perfomred by PHD

Replication in respiratory tract, viremia and rash

Vaccine: live-attenuated, MMR with boosters

NO anti-viral therapy

Long-term immunity, rare SSPE