Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (15)
Sources: Fish, liver, egg yolks, kidney, butter, dairy
Actions: eye integrity. Anti-oxidant (infections)
Deficiency: Night blindness. Complete blindness.
Sources: Oils, meats, leafy veg, nuts
Actions: ROS scavenger, prevents atherosc, anti-inflammatory.
Deficiency: neuromusc d/o, hemolysis and anemia.
Sources: sunlight, fortified foods (milk, cereal, bread), fatty fish, cod liver oil
Actions: increases serum Ca and PO4.
RF for deficiency: dark skin, obesity, northern climates, breastfed infants.
Deficiency: hypophos, hypocalcemia, demineralization of bones, osteomalacia. Rickets, low vitamind D, high PTH.
Other: supplement x400 IU/d in breastfed infants
Sources: green veg, veg oil, gut bacteria
Actions: clotting factors.
Deficiency: mucosal bleeding, bruises, splinter hemorrhages, melena.
Toxicity: hemolytic anemia
Other: newborns given injection.
Vitamin B1 (aka thiamine)
Sources: Yeast, legumes, pork, rice, cereals, grains.
Actions: creation of acetyl CoA (energy?), cofactor for some metabolic enzymes.
Deficiency: Beri-Beri, Wernicke-Korsakoff
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Sources: meats, fish, eggs, milk
Actions: coenzyme in metabolic pathways
Deficiency: sore throat, edema of mucus membranes, chelitis, stomatitis, glossitis
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Sources: Meats, cereals, legumes, seeds.
Actions: metabolic reactions.
Deficiency: Pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)
Sources: plant foods, meats, whole grains, vegetables. Absorption requires IF from stomach.
Actions: req for regeneration of THF for DNA synthesis.
Deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia, subacute combined degeneration, parasthesias, ataxia. Common deficiency in vegans.
To assess levels: serum B12, homocysteine levels (should be elevated if deficient)
Sources: Citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, veg
Actions: anti-ox, cofactor in folate reaction. PG metabolism. Involved in collagen synthesis. Enhances Fe absorption.
Deficiency: Scurvy --> malaise, SOB, bone pain, myalgia, derm changes, dry mouth/eyes
Sources: fortified cereals, spinach, lentils, red meat
Acctions: DNA synthesis and repair. Essential for rapid cell growth.
Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia. NTD in pregnancy.
To assess: RBC folate, plasma folate, total plasma homocystine.
Sources: fortified cereals, spinach, lentils, red meat.
Actions: Hb prod, brain development, cell differentation.
Deficiency: Fe def anemia, fatigue, hair loss, pallor
Sources: dairy products, green leafy veg, OJ (fortified), Soy milk (fortified), tofu
Actions: 2nd msgners in signal transd, bone mineralization, muscle contraction.
Deficiency: petechiea, tetany, hyperreflexia, fractures.
Note: requires vitamin D for absorption- check D levels.
Sources: red meat, shellfish.
Actions: reg fxns, catalyst, structural.
Deficiency: growth issues, diarrhea, impotence, alopecia
Sources: protein sources
Actions: bone formation
Deficiency: neurological or muscle dysfxn