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Flashcards in Vitamins and Minerals Deck (81):
1

Vitamins are essential micro nutrients need to regulations, growth and maintenance of ____ _____

Body functions

2

Vitamins and minerals are most abundant in

fruits, veggies, and grains

3

What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins?

Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K

4

Fat soluble vitamins are stored in _____ tissue

adipose

5

What remains in our system longer, fat soluble or water soluble vitamins?

fat soluble

6

Which vitamins are not readily excreted?

Fat soluble

7

Consuming too much fat soluble vitamins can

create toxic levels in your body (except vitamin K)

8

How many water soluble vitamins are there and what kinds?

8 B vitamins, 1 vitamin C

9

Name B vitamins B-1 through B-3

Thiamin (B-1)
Riboflavin (B-2)
Niacin (B-3)

10

Name the last four B vitamins

Pantothenic Acid
Biotin
Vitamin B-6
Vitamin B-12

11

Which vitamin primarily assists in production and breakdown of nutrients for energy?

B vitamins

12

Which group of vitamins are excreted if there is excess?

Water soluble

13

Which three vitamins are antioxidants?

Vitamin A, C, E

14

Which vitamins produce ATP (fuel) from CHO, fat and protein (amino acid synthesis)

B vitamins

15

What is the name for vitamin B9 and what does it do

Folate, DNA synthesis, prevention of birth defects

16

Vitamins can be lost in fruits and veggies 3 ways:

Not eating soon enough
improper storage
excessive cooking

17

Vision, growth, moisture in skin and eyes, and immune system comes from?

Vitamin A (Retinol & Beta-Carotene)

18

Vitamin A is found in which foods?

Milk, cream, carrots, sweet potato, eggs, dark green veggies

19

Increased absorbtion of calcium, calcification of bone, and maintaining blood calcium comes from?

Vitamin D (we need vitamin D3)

20

Vitamin D is found where

THE SUN
fortified milk, eggs, fish

21

What fraction of Americans are Vit D deficient

1/3

22

Our cit D/25 hydroxy levels should be above

50.
30-50 : supplement

23

When sun shines on your skin, it converts...

cholesterol into Vit D

24

How much Vitamin D3 should we get daily

1000 IU's

25

Vitamin E is an antioxidant, where is it found?

Plant oils, veggies, whole grains

26

Which vitamin helps your blood clot?
As well as bone metabolism and prevention of arterial buildup

Vitamin K

27

Where is Vitamin K found?

green veggies, liver, plant oils

28

What is the name for vitamin B1, and what is its function?

Thiamin
CHO metabolism, nerve function

29

What is the name of vitamin B2, and what is its function?

Riboflavin
CHO metabolism

30

What is the name of vitamin B3, and what is its function?

Niacin
energy production, fat synthesis

31

What is the function of Pantothenic Acid?

energy production

32

What is the function of Biotin?

glucose and energy production

33

What is the function of vitamin B6?

protein metabolism

34

What is the function of Folate?

DNA synthesis (pregnancy)

35

What is the function of Vitamin B12?

Folic acid metabolism

36

What is ascorbic acid also knows as?

Vitamin C

37

Connective tissue and hormone synthesis comes from

Vitamin C

38

What are the three major minerals?

Calcium, sodium and potassium

39

If our body needs more than 100 mg/day it is a ____ mineral, and if it needs less than 100 mg/day, it is a _____ mineral

more - major mineral
less - trace mineral

40

Which trace mineral transports oxygen in blood and muscles and fights fatigue and infection?

Iron

41

How much iron do adult male and females need?

male - 7-8 mg/day
female - 12-18 mg/day
teens - 10-13 mg/day

42

Iron deficiency can cause

headaches, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, anemia

43

Iron absorption increases when eating

meat with Vit C

44

Which major mineral builds bone and tooth strength, and aids muscle contraction

Calcium

45

Adults need how many mg of calcium per day?

1000-1500 mg

46

How many mg can your body absorb of calcium per meal?

300-500 mg

47

Bone deterioration or osteoporosis is a lack of which mineral?

Calcium

48

Which percentage of bone mass is built by 18

90%

49

10% of bone mass is built between what age?

18-35

50

You can lose 1% of your bone mass every ____ after 35 if you don't get enough calcium

every year

51

What are the functions of sodium (salt)

aids nerve impulses and water balance

52

Adults need how many mg/day of sodium?

1200-1500 mg/day but stay under 2400

53

A deficiency of what mineral leads to muscle cramping during exercise?

sodium

54

Too much sodium (salt) can lead to

high blood pressure

55

Which mineral aids nerve impulses, muscle performance, water balance, and reactions that build proteins?

Potassium

56

How many mg/day do adults need of potassium?

4700 mg/day

57

You many be deficient in what mineral if you have muscle weakness or cramping or dehydration during exercise

Potassium

58

Primates eat ___ times more Vitamin C than humans

6-7x

59

What percentage of NA are not getting enough Vit C

25%

60

What is fortification?

adding vitamins and minerals to food

61

Why do veggies and fruits have 10-30% less vit and minerals than years ago

They are developed to be larger so the water content went up and nutrient density went down

62

Which vitamins deplete while cooking?

Water soluble, vitamins B and C

63

What is the triage theory?

Vitamins take care of the most important thing in your body first. Short term survival over long term health

64

Dr Offit was pro supplement or anti supplement?

anti supplement, get vitamins from food

65

In Canada, __% of vitamins contain unlisted ingredients and __% are fakes

60% and 30%

66

Humans can have ___-___ IU's of Vit D daily

1000-5000

67

Vitamin D has been linked to which hormone?

Serotonin

68

Staying hydrated helps with: (4 things)

better focus
improved motor skills
feel less fatigued
heart rate and body temp in an optimal zone

69

Dehydration increases fatigue, impairs motor skills, reduces concentration, increases body temp and heart rate and also does what else?

nitrates build up in blood stream\
kidney and brain damage

70

It is recommended you get __% of water intake from beverages, and __% water intake from food

60% beverage, 40% food

71

Males should get how many cups of water per day compared to females?

males 12 cups (3L)
women 9 cups (2.5L)

72

Hydration needs are affected by

genetics
fitness level
exercise intensity

73

Video: How much weight did the rugby player lose after running for 1 hour?

14 pounds, 7% water weight

74

What is the maximum core temperature your body can function at?

37 degrees Celcius (98F)

75

What is the temperature threshold for heat stroke?

40 C , 104 F

76

It is common to lose how many L of sweat in 1 hour of exercise

0.5 L - 2.0 L

77

1 kg of body weight lost during exercise equals

1 L of fluid lost

78

What percentage of dehydration impairs athletic performance?

2%

79

You are supposed to drink 150% of what you lost during exercise, when realistically we replace

30-70%

80

Fluid intake is enhanced when drinks are:

cool, flavored and contain sodium

81

Sports drinks are ideal because they contain

carbs (4-8%)