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Flashcards in Vocab Health Deck (52):
1

Affect

A psychological term for an observable expression of emotion

2

Aggression

any act that is intended to cause pain, suffering, or damage to another person.

3

Alienation

The state of being emotionally separated from others and from one's own feelings.

4

Antidepressants

Medications used to treat depression.

5

Antisocial behavior

A pattern of behavior that is verbally or physically harmful to other people, animals, or property, including behavior that severely violates social expectations for a particular environment.

6

Antisocial personal disorder

A behavior disorder developed by a small percentage of children with conduct disorder whose behavior does not improve as they mature. Also known as sociopathic or psychopathy.

7

Anxiety

An unpleasant emotion triggered by anticipation of future events, memories of past events, or ruminations about the self.

8

Apathy

can be defined as an absence or suppression of emotion, feeling, concern or passion, and it is an indifference to things generally found to be exciting or moving.

9

Applied psychology

The area of psychology in which basic theory and research are applied to the actual problems faced by individuals on a daily basis.

10

Attention deficit

Disorder characterized by attentional deficit and/or hyperactivity—impulsivity more severe than expected for a developmental age.

11

Autism

A severe psychological disorder that first appears in early childhood and is characterized by impaired social interaction and language development, and other behavioral problems.

12

Autonomic nervous system

he nervous system responsible for regulating automatic bodily processes, such as breathing and heart rate. The autonomic system also involves the processes of metabolism, or the storage and expenditure of energy.

13

Avoidance learning

An individual's response to avoid an unpleasant or stressful situation; also known as escape learning.

14

Behavior therapy

A goal-oriented, therapeutic approach that treats emotional and behavioral disorders as maladaptive learned responses that can be replaced by healthier ones with appropriate training.

15

Biofeedback

A technique that allows individuals to monitor their own physiological processes so they can learn to control them.

16

Bipolar disorder

A condition (traditionally called manic depression) in which a person alternates between the two emotional extremes of depression and mania (an elated, euphoric mood).

17

Body image

The subjective conception of one's own body, based largely on evaluative judgments about how one is perceived by others.

18

Central nervous system

In humans, that portion of the nervous system that lies within the brain and spinal cord; it receives impulses from nerve cells throughout the body, regulates bodily functions, and directs behavior.

19

Classical conditioning

The process of closely associating a neutral stimulus with one that evokes a reflexive response so that eventually the neutral stimulus alone will evoke the same response.

20

Cognitive behavior therapy

A therapeutic approach based on the principle that maladaptive moods and behavior can be changed by replacing distorted or inappropriate ways of thinking with thought patterns that are healthier and more realistic.

21

Defense mechanism

Unconscious strategies for avoiding or reducing threatening feelings, such as fear and anxiety.

22

Delay of gratification

The ability to forgo an immediate pleasure or reward in order to gain a more substantial one later.

23

Delusion

Beliefs that are in stark contrast to reality, often having to do with persecution or an exaggerated sense of importance or glory.

24

Depression

An emotional state or mood characterized by one or more of these symptoms: sad mood, low energy, poor concentration, sleep or appetite changes, feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness, and thoughts of suicide.

25

Desensitization

A behavior modification technique used to combat phobias and other irrational fears.

26

Drug therapy

Medications administered to help people suffering from psychological illnesses.

27

Ego

is that portion of the personality that imposes realistic limitations on the id.

28

Emotional development

The process by which infants and children begin developing the capacity to experience, express, and interpret emotions.

29

Emotional intelligence

The ability to perceive and constructively act on both one's own emotions and the feelings of others.

30

Empathy

The capacity to vicariously experience and understand the thoughts and feelings of another person by putting oneself in that person's place.

31

Extroversion

A term used to characterize people who are typically outgoing, friendly, and open toward others.

32

Forgetting curve

he general, predictable pattern of the process of forgetting learned information.

33

Identity

A person's mental representation of who he or she is. Components of identity include a sense of personal continuity and of uniqueness from other people.

34

Id

In psychoanalytic theory, the most primitive, unconscious element of human personality. The id is the part of the personality that includes such basic biological impulses or drives as eating, drinking, eliminating wastes, avoiding pain, attaining sexual pleasure, and aggression.

35

Impulse control disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by the repeated inability to refrain from performing a particular action that is harmful either to oneself or others.

36

Inferiority complex

A psychological condition that exists when a person's feelings of inadequacy are so intense that daily living is impaired.

37

Introversion

A commonly used term for people who are quiet, reserved, thoughtful, and self-reliant and who tend to prefer solitary work and leisure activities.

38

Mania

A description of the condition opposite depression in manic-depressive psychosis, or bipolar disorder. It is characterized by a mood of elation without apparent reason.

39

Mental imagery

picture created by the imagination with no visual stimulus required.

40

Narcissism

Excessive preoccupation with self and lack of empathy for others.

41

OCD

Mental illness characterized by the recurrence of intrusive, anxiety-producing thoughts (obsessions) accompanied by repeated attempts to suppress these thoughts through the performance of certain irrational, often ritualistic, behaviors (compulsions).

42

Operant conditioning

Approach to human learning based on the premise that human intelligence and will operate on the environment rather than merely respond to the environment's stimuli.

43

Panic disorder

An acute feeling of intense fear, accentuated by increased heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating, and mild convulsions.

44

Passive aggressive personality

Its main distinguishing feature is indirect resistance to the demands or expectations of others through stubbornness, forgetfulness, inefficiency, procrastination, and other covert means. Rather than refusing outright to perform a task, the passive-aggressive person will do it badly or procrastinate until the deadline for its completion has passed.

45

Placebo effect

In research, a scientifically significant response that cannot be explained by physiological variables and is assumed to be psychological in origin. Placebos are substances with no known pharmacological value that are given to members of a control group in an experiment.

46

Psychoanalysis

A method of treatment for mental, emotional, and behavioral dysfunctions as developed by Sigmund Freud.

47

Psychosis

A symptom of mental illness characterized by a radical change in personality and a distorted or diminished sense of objective reality.

48

Rapid eye movement

the stage of sleep most closely associated with dreaming.

49

Self actualization

A prominent term in humanistic psychology that refers to the basic human need for self-fulfillment.

50

Self-esteem

A prominent term in humanistic psychology that refers to the basic human need for self-fulfillment. Psychologists who write about self-esteem generally discuss it in terms of two key components: the feeling of being loved and accepted by others and a sense of competence and mastery in performing tasks and solving problems independently.

51

Self fulfilling prophecy

An initial expectation that is confirmed by the behavior it elicits.

52

Superego

In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the human personality that represents a person's inner values and morals; also known as conscience.