Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and cavity embalming fluids; includes but is not limited to:
- Hardening compounds
- Preservative powders
- Sealing agents
- Mold preventative agents
- Pack application agents
Dyes which aid in restoring a life-like surface pigmentation to a body and also stain the body tissue cells.
Active Dyes (Staining Dyes, Cosmetic Dyes)
Assimilation of gas, vapor, or dissolved matter by the surface of a solid or liquid.
Intravascular: The increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels which is a specific type of congealing.
A protein found in blood plasma.
An organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups. The general formula for a monohydroxyl is R-OH, where R is the hydrocarbon group.
An organic compound containing one or more -CHO groups. The general formula is R-CHO, where R is a hydrocarbon group or Hydrogen.
Postmortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature.
An organic compound containing nitrogen; any compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals. The general formula for the primary is R-NH2.
Building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis. Their basic formula is NH2-CHR-COOH.
- An amino group
- An alpha carbon
- Any aliphatic or aromatic radical
- A carboxyl group
In the absence of free oxygen.
Deviation from the normal.
Glycoprotein substance developed by the body in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen.
A foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that react specifically with it.
Self-destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance.
A chemical which affects the stabilization of the acid-base (pH) balance within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissues.
A compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen; sugars, starches, and glycogen.
Microorganisms (Colon Bacillus) found normally in the colon.
Bacterial inhabitants of the colon.
A solution-like system in which the size of the solute particle is between 1 and 100 nanometers. Particles of solute pass through filters but not membranes.
A disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology assumed to be a slow virus; because of unknown etiology, caregivers using invasive procedures use extreme caution.
A protein whose structure has been changed by physical or chemical agents.
Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one.
Deodorants (Masking Agents, Perfuming Agents)
The true metabolic enzymes of bacterium, produced within the bacterial cell wall.
An organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition.
Enzymes which function outside of the bacterial cell wall.
Removal of particles (liquid or solid) from a solution, as it passes through a membrane or other partial barrier.
The act of making tissue rigid. The solidification of a compound.
An agent employed in the preparation of tissues for the purpose of maintaining the existing form of the structure. Many agents are used, the most important one being formalin.
That amount of formaldehyde necessary to overcome any nitrogen residue and cause the body proteins to become coagulated.
Colorless, strong-smelling gas that when used in solution is a powerful preservative and disinfectant; a potential occupational carcinogen.
Formaldehyde (HCHO, CH2O)
Grey discoloration of the body caused by the reaction of formaldehyde from the embalming process with hemoglobin to form methyl hemoglobin.
Chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb and to disinfect. Often used in cavity treatment of autopsied cases.
The nonprotein portion of hemoglobin; the red pigment of the hemoglobin.
The red respiratory portion of the red blood cells; iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to the cells.
Destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin.
Reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down. When this is on proteins, the addition of water accompanied by the action of enzymes results in the breakdown of protein into amino acids.
A solution having a greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared.
A solution having lesser concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared.
The state or condition in which the body or part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects.
Disease caused by the growth of a pathogenic microorganism n the body.
Biological agent or condition that constitutes a hazard to humans.
Infectious Waste (Biohazard)
The process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present.
A solution having equal concentration of dissolved solute to that of a standard of reference.
Conditions characterized by excessive concentrations of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient.
A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities of use on bodies with jaundice; usually low formaldehyde content.
A specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues.
Organelle that exists within a cell, but separate from the cell; contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates.
In its broadest sense, refers to the moistening, and softening, of any tissue decomposing in a liquid medium.
A minute one celled form of life not distinguishable as to vegetable or animal nature.
Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands predicted upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used.
Antemortem, physiological death of cells of the body followed by their replacement. Most cells in the body are completely replaced every 14 years.
A postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition.
Pathological death of a tissue still part of the living organism.
The passage of solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Osmosis (Hindered Diffusion)
Preservation of the body's surface (to dry and harden lesions), of excisions and cavities, or of areas that received inadequate arterial preservative. Materials used include:
- surface packs
- Embalming powders
- Autopsy gels.
Osmotic Embalming (Surface Embalming)
Method by which solutions and/or solvents cross through a membrane with no energy provided by the cells of the membrane. In embalming, examples include:
- Pressure filtration
Passive Transport System
To force a fluid through (an organ or tissue), especially by way of the blood vessels; injection during vascular (arterial) embalming.
A change in the form or state of matter without any change in chemical composition.
Changes which are not primarily responsible for alterations in the chemical composition and properties of the body substances.
Physical Postmortem Changes
Postdeath alteration in the body that comprises a physical and a chemical change, for example, rigor mortis, wherein there is a change in pH of the tissues and a stiffening of the muscles.
Phisicochemical Postmortem Change
A substance bringing about the percipitation. The oxilates formally used in water conditioning chemicals are now illegal because of the poisonous nature to the embalmer.
Positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming solution through the capillary wall to diffuse with the interstitial fluids; causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular to an extravascular position.
A small proteinaceous infectious agent (particle) which almost certainly does not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids. Diseases caused by this often are called spongiform encephalopathies because of the postmortem appearance of the brain with large vacuoles in the cortex and cerebellum.
Any one of a group of nitrogenous organic compounds formed the by action of putrefactive bacteria on proteins.
Supplemental fluid, used with th regular arterial solution whose purpose is to retain body mositure and retard dehydration.
Restorative Fluid (Humectant)
Bacteria that derive their nutrition from dead organic matter.
Material used to provide a barrier of seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood.
A chemical agent that can "fence off" or "tie up" metal ions s they cannot react with other chemicals.
The substance that is dissolved in solution.
Liquid containing dissolved substance.
A liquid holding another substance in solution.
In liquids, muddy with particles or extraneous matter, not clear or transparent.
Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorpoarted into embalming fluids.
Vehicle (Vector, Diluter, Carrier)
A change in the body's chemical composition that occurs after death such as hemolysis.
Chemical Postmortem Change
Soft whiteish crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats.
Adipocere (Grave Wax)