Flashcards in Volcanos 🍑🌿🌞🔥✨🐥 Deck (40):
Where does a volcano develop ? 🌿
From an opening in the Earths surface
When it erupts what escapes ? 🌋
Molten rock ( magma ) in a burst of speed 🌋
What is a volcano ? 🌋
A natural hazard that can be very destructive but also create new land 🌿
What can a volcano send into the atmosphere ?
~ poisonous gases
~ millions of tonnes of dust
What does it cover land with ?
- molten lava
- hot ash
What dies hot ash do ?
Kills Plants + animals and destroys settlements
What is an extinct volcano ?
When a volcano is no longer active
What is a dormant volcano ?
A volcano that is still active but hasn't erupted in a very long time
Where is the largest volcano found ?
What is the earth ?
A huge fiery ball of hot molten rock, surrounded by a thin layer if cool, hard rock
List the primary hazards of a volcano
: ash and dust
: lava flows
: volcanic gases
; debris avalanches
Other hazards ?
Affect in climate
Risk of aircraft due to dust cloud
Name the three types of volcanos
Hot spot volcano
What 2 gases are let into the atmosphere ( volcanic gases )
Carbon monoxide , sulphur dioxide
How do volcanologists predict eruptions ?
Energy waves to work out how close magma is to the surface
Gases in the air change
The amounts of volcanic gases increase
Temperature of stagnant water gets warmer
Magma causes a bulge in the side of volcano
Movement in the ground changes shape of volcano
Why do scientists look at past eruptions ?
To see where the most severe lava flows, mudflows , and floods might be expected
How are earth tremors caused ?
Movement of tectonic plates
What is an earthquake measured on ?
A Richter scale
What does the Richter scale calculate ?
The energy released by an earthquake to determine its magnitude
How is it measured ?
2 is 10 times more powerful than 1 etc
Which cause v little damage and which cause a lot ?
Little - 5 or less
Lot - 7 and above
What is another way an earthquake can be measured ?
On the mercalli scale
How is the mercalli scale measured ?
(1) - small shudders
(12) - total destruction
How are buildings able to withstand earthquakes ?
> stronger reinforced foundations
> restricting their height
> wide roads between building - prevent fires
> gas and water pipes + electric cables are well protected
Give examples of extreme weather
What is a tropical storm ?
Low pressured weather system where the centre is warmer than the surrounding atmosphere
Where do hurricanes develop and where do they lose force ?
Warm seas, lose force over land
What must a storm have to be classified as a hurricane ?
Wind speed - 120km/h
How long does it take for hurricanes to form
Over a few days // 6 - 12 hours
When do they form ?
When the air over the warm sea in the tropics expands and rises
What part of a hurricane is the calmest ?
The eye 👁
What do hurricanes pick up ?
Huge amounts of water
What is a hurricane accompanied by ?
Heavy rain and lightning
What happens in a hurricane ?
Rain wind and waves cause a lot of damage
Strong winds cause the most damage
Huge waves kill most people
Centre - pressure is low you get a swell of water 3 m high
What is a tornado ?
Violent spinning column of air that stretches from a base of a thunderstorm to the ground
Where do they form ?
Over land where it's warm, moist air near the ground and cool dry air above it
What is a tornado measured on ?
What happens in winter storms
Rain snow and hail