Flashcards in War, Revolt and the Overthrow of the Monarchy Deck (27):
What did the war with Austria of 1792 lead to?
The collapse of the Monarchy, civil war and the Terror
What was the Declaration of Pillnitz and what year was it published?
1791 - A union between European leaders to support the French sovereign and his family
Why did the King and Queen wish for war with Austria and what did this lead to rumours of?
Hoped France would lose and Louis would regain his old powers.
Led to rumours of the Austrian Committee which was supposedly led by Marie-Antoinette
Why did Lafayette and Brissot wish for war with Austria?
Lafayette - So the King's powers would be restored and his own position boosted
Brissot - To extend the Revolution abroad
Why did Robespierre oppose war with Austria?
Believed it would be more difficult than expected
When did Austria and Prussia ally for war and why did they expect little resistance from France?
-France was considered weak due to internal divisions
-Lots of offficers left France so France couldn't adequately defend herself
-French economic instability
When did France declare war on Austria and Prussia?
Why was the French army a disadvantage when war was declared?
Because it was filled with young inexperienced soldiers who lacked discipline
What was discovered when Northern France was invaded?
That Marie-Antoinette had been sending French military plans to the enemy
What action was taken to prevent the restoration of the Catholic Church and the Monarchy?
The law giving permission to deport refractory priests which Louis vetoed
What was the Brunswick Manifesto and what was its effect?
A manifesto from other countries stating if the Royal Family were harmed, the population would too be harmed. The population perceived this as a threat and triggered the attack on the Tuileries
How many sections voted for the abolition of the Monarchy and what was the response of the assembly?
47 out of 48
The Assembly refused which caused an uprising
When did the King seek refuge with the Assembly and what was the aftermath?
August 1792 - the Royal Family were captured and imprisoned in the temple
Who were in charge after the Attack on the Tuileries and why?
The Girondins because 2/3 deputies (who were constitutional monarchists) didn't feel safe so went into hiding
Give 3 radical measures which the Assembly (dominated by the Girondins) passed
-Refractory priests who didn't leave France would be deported
-Divorce was legalised
-House to house searches for arms were ordered
What happened to those in the Convention who were Royalist Sympathisers and what was the impact?
They were disenfranchised (stripped of the right to vote) and so the Convention became purely Revolutionary
Give 2 similarities and 1 difference between the Girondins and Montagnards
-Believed in the Revolution
-Girondins believed in decentralisation whilst the Montagnards believed power should remain in Paris
Which 2 factors sealed Louis' fate?
-Correspondance between Louis and the Austrian Royal Family
-Marat's proposal (Appel Nominal) insisting a vote should occur to determine whether Louis was innocent or guilty. The majority voted in favour of his guilt
When was Louis XVI executed?
When was France under threat by a number of different countries including Austria and Prussia?
Summer of 1792
What rumours arose when a Prussian invasion was suspected and what was the response?
That counter-revolutionary prisoners (including priests) were to escape France and hand her over to the enemy
September Massacrres - Over 1000 Parisian prisoners were murdered by the Sans-Culottes to protect the Revolution (start of the Terror)
When was the Battle of Valmy and what happened?
September 1792 - French troops defeated Prussian troops (if Prussia won the Revolution would have most likely came to an end)
When was the War of the First Coalition and what happened?
February 1793 - France was at war with most of Europe including Britain, Austria and Spain
Why did Britain and France both believe the war would be quick and easy?
France thought Britain would too engage in a Revolution and Britain thought France to be bankrupt
What was the Vendee Rebellion?
An anti-revolution campaign caused by the expansion of war, the introduction of conscription and opposition to the peasants having to pay more tax than under the Ancien Regime
Give 2 economic issues of France in this period
-More assignats were printed, decreasing their value
-Bread was scarce