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What is an optical fibre?

Thin glass or plastic fibres that carry data over long distances as pulses of visible light
-work because of reflection
-light is not easily absorbed or scattered as it travels along a fibre


What is ultraviolet radiation?

Produced by the son and exposure to it is what gives people a sun tan.
-present in sun beds in UV lamps to give artificial tan > overexposure can be dangerous


What is the purpose of X Ray's?

-To identify any broken bones in the body
-can treat people with cancers (radiotherapy)


How do X rays work?

It is the amount of radiation that is absorbed that gives you an X Ray image
-the brightest bits are where fewer X Ray's get through so they aren't as accurate as the darker parts


How are X Ray's and gamma rays used in radiotherapy?

-high doses of these Ray's kills all living cells so they are directed to kill the cancer cells in a specific area


What are the dangers of X rays and gamma rays?

-types of ionising radiation which can causes gene mutation or cell destruction and cancer
-radiographer swear lead aprons and stand behind a lead screen because it doesn't emit this radiation


How are TV signals transmitted from a transmitter on the ground to a house?

-transmitted through atmosphere into space
-picked up by satellite receiver orbiting Earth
-satellite transmits signal back to Earth in a different direction
-then received by a satellite dish connected to the house


How do lenses form images?

They refract light and change its direction


What is a convex lens?

-bulges outwards
-causes rays of light parallel to the axis to be brought together at the principal focus


What is a concave lens?

-caves inwards
-causes rays of light parallel to axis to spread out (diverge)
-ALWAYS produces a virtual image that is upright and smaller than the object


What is a real image?

Where the light from an object comes together to form an image on a screen


What is a virtual image?

When the rays are spreading out so the light from the object appears to be coming from a completely different place
Eg your face in a mirror and looking through a magnifying glass


How do you describe an image properly?

-how big it is compared to object
-whether it's upright or inverted (upside down)
-whether it's real or virtual


How do you calculate the magnification?

Magnification = image height / object height


What are opaque objects?

They do not transmit light. When visible waves hit them, they absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect others


What are transparent/translucent objects?

They transmit light. Not all light that hits the surface of the object is absorbed or reflected-some can pass through


What are colour filters used for?

To filter out different wavelengths of light so that only certain colours are transmitted, the rest are absorbed
Eg red cellophane (red or black)-transparent object


What is a perfect black body?

An object that absorbs all of the radiation that hits it. No radiation is reflected or transmitted
-the best possible emitters of radiation


What does the temperature of the earth depend on?

The amount of IR radiation it reflects, absorbs and emits


Why does the temperature of the earth stay fairly constant?

-during day lots of radiation (light) is transferred to Earth from sun and is absorbed-increase in local temp
-at night less radiation is being absorbed than it is being emitted-decrease in local temp
-overall temp of earth stays fairly constant


What causes a sound wave?

-vibrating objects.
-vibrations passed through the surrounding medium as a series of compressions and rarefactions


Why does a sound wave travel best in a solid and not in a gas, liquid or space?

-when a sound travels through a solid, it causes the particles to vibrate
-sound can't travel in space because it's a vacuum (no particles to vibrate)


How do sound waves travel to the ear?

-vibrations passed to ossicles in ear, through semicircular canals and to the cochlea.
-cochlea turns thee vibrations into electrical signals which are sent to the brain and so we hear the sound


What range of sound can humans hear? What affects this?

-hearing is limited by size and shape of our ear drum


What are echoes? How are they caused?

-sound waves are reflected by hard flat surfaces
-echoes are just reflected sound waves


What is an ultra sound?

-electrical device which produce electrical oscillations of any frequency
-converted into mechanical vibrations to produce sound waves beyond range of human hearing


How do microphones work?

Sound waves cause diaphragm to vibrate and this movement is transferred into an electrical signal


How are ultrasounds used in the medical industry?

-ultrasound waves can pass through body
-when they reach boundary between two different media (eg fluid and skin of foetus) some of the wave is reflected back and detected
-the exact timing and distribution of these echoes are processed by a computer to produce a video image of foetus (scan)


What happens when there is an earth quake?

Seismic waves are created and travel through the earth. They are detected by seismometers


What happens when seismic waves reach a boundary?

When they reach a boundary between different layers of material inside the earth, some waves will be absorbed and some will be refracted