Waves - Paper 2 Flashcards Preview

Physics Paper 2 Trilogy 11B1 > Waves - Paper 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Waves - Paper 2 Deck (78)
1
Q

What do waves transfer?

A

Energy

2
Q

What are the two types of wave?

A

Transverse and longitudinal

3
Q

Describe a transverse wave

A

The vibrations of the wave are perpendicular** to the direction in which **energy is transferred.

4
Q

Give some examples of transverse waves

A

Ripples on a water surface

Any wave in the electromagnetic spectrum

S waves

5
Q

Describe a longitudinal wave

A

The vibrations of the wave are parallel** to the direction in which **energy is transferred.

Longitudinal waves show areas of compression** and **rarefaction.

6
Q

Give some examples of longitudinal waves

A

Sound waves

Ultrasound

P waves

7
Q

Define amplitude

A

The amplitude of a wave is the maximum displacement of a point on a wave away from its undisturbed position.

It shows us how much energy a wave has.

8
Q

Define wavelength

A

The wavelength of a wave is the distance from a point on one wave to the equivalent point on the adjacent wave. Measured in meters

9
Q

Define frequency

A

It is the number of waves that pass a point per second. Measured in hertz (Hz)

10
Q

Define period (T)

A

Its the time for one exact wave to pass a point. Measured in seconds

T = 1 / f

11
Q

State the wave equation with all units

A

wave speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz)× wavelength (m)

12
Q

Describe an experiment to find the speed of sound through air

A
1. Measure a distance of 100 m from a wall.
2. Hit two blocks together to make a sound and start timing.
3. Stop timing when the hear the reflected sound (echo).
4. Divide the time recored by 2 as the sound has travelled to the wall and back again
5. use the equation Speed = distance / time
13
Q

Describe a method to measure the speed of ripples on a water surface.

A
1. Set up a ripple tank.
2. Find the wavelength by using a ruler to measure across 10 wavelengths.
3. Divide the answer by 10 to find 1 wavelength.
4. Use a stopwatch and count the number of waves produced in 10 seconds.
5. Dived the answer by 10 to find the frequency.
6. Use the equation speed = wavelength x frequency
14
Q

What can happen to waves when they reach a boundary between two materials?

A
1. They can be reflected
2. They can be absorbed (this will cause a small temperature rise)
3. They can be transmitted (they will pass through)
15
Q

What is the law of reflection

A

The angle of incident = angle of reflection for a flat plain mirror.

16
Q

What is refraction?

A

When a wave travels from one medium to another and changes direction.

17
Q

Why does refraction take place?

A

The change in medium means a change in density which caused a change in speed.

18
Q

When a substance moves from a more dense to a less dense substance, what is the affect of waves speeds, frequency and wavelength?

A
1. Wave speed - decreases
2. Frequency - same
3. Wavelength - decreases
19
Q

When a substance moves from a less dense to a more dense substance, what is the affect of waves speeds, frequency and wavelength?

A
1. Wave speed - increases
2. Frequency - same
3. Wavelength - increases
20
Q

When light slows down which direction does it refract?

A

Towards the normal

21
Q

When light speeds up which direction does it refract?

A

Away from the normal

22
Q

Explain why light refracts as it passes from air into glass?

A

As light moves from air into glass it slows down.

The edge of the wave front entering the glass first slows down first

Part of the wave front that is still in the air continues at a higher speed causing it to travel further and to change in direction

23
Q

State the normal human hearing range

A

From 20 Hz to 20 kHz

24
Q

How do we detect sound waves?

A

Within the ear, sound waves cause the ear drum and other parts to vibrate. These vibrations are converting into an electrical signal which is passed onto the brain.

25
Q

Why do humans have a limited range of frequencies they can detect?

A

The conversion of sound waves to vibrations of solids works over a limited frequency range. This restricts the limits of human hearing.

26
Q

What is the effect of a louder sound on the ear drum?

A

larger vibrations

27
Q

What is the effect of a higher pitched sound on the ear drum?

A

Faster vibrations

28
Q

What is a ultrasound?

A

Ultrasound waves have a frequency higher than the upper limit of hearing for humans (20000 Hz)

29
Q

How can ultrasound be used for medical and industrial imaging?

A
1. Ultrasound waves are partially reflected and partially transmitted when they meet a boundary between two different media.
2. The time taken for the reflections to return to the detector can be measured
3. This can be used to determine how far away such a boundary is. 2 x Distance = speed x time
30
Q

What are seismic waves

A

Waves produced by Earthquakes

31
Q

What type of waves are P-waves?

A

longitudinal

32
Q

What type of waves are S-waves?

A

Transverse

33
Q

Which earthquake wave scant travel through the liquid core?

A

S-waves as they are transverse

34
Q

A

An area where no p waves or s waves are detected

35
Q

What does a shadow zone show us?

A

There must be a liquid core because:

P waves are refracted at the core mantle boundary

S waves can’t travel through the liquid core

36
Q

State the waves that make up the electromagnetic spectrum, in order of increasing wavelength

A
2. Microwaves
3. Infrared
4. Visible light
5. Ultraviolet
6. X-rays
7. Gamma rays
37
Q

What do all electromagnetic waves have in common?

A
1. They are all transverse waves
2. They can all travel through a vacuum
3. They all travel at the speed of light through a vacuum
38
Q

A

By an oscillating electrical current in the transmitter. The frequency of the current will make the frequency of the radiowaves.

39
Q

What happens when radio waves are absorbed by an aerial?

A

When radio waves are absorbed they will create an alternating current with the same frequency as the radio wave itself

40
Q

What are the dangers of ultraviolet waves

A
1. Can age skin prematurely
2. Can burn skin which can lead to skin cancer
3. Damage eyes which can lead to blindness
41
Q

What are the dangers of X-rays and gamma rays?

A

X-rays and gamma rays are ionising radiation.

Low doses can damage DNA and cause cancer

Large doses can kill cells

42
Q

State some uses of radio waves

A

television and radio, these waves stay within the earths atmosphere.

43
Q

State some uses of microwaves

A

Satellite communications eg mobile phone and satellite TV. Microwaves can travel to space and back.

Cooking food.

44
Q

State some uses of infrared

A

electrical heaters, cooking food, infrared cameras

45
Q

State some uses of visible light

A

fibre optic communications

46
Q

State some uses of ultraviolet

A

energy efficient lamps

sun tanning

security markings

47
Q

State some uses of X-rays and Gamma rays

A

medical imaging and cancer treatment.

48
Q

Describe how x-rays are used for medical imaging

A

pass through soft tissue

but are absorbed by bone

49
Q

How does a lens work?

A

A lens forms an image by refracting light to a focal point

50
Q

When describing the nature of an image formed the key words to use are?

A
1. Real or virtual
2. Magnified or diminished
3. Upright or inverted
51
Q

What are the units of magnification

A

no units as it is a ratio

52
Q

In a ray diagram the symbol for a convex lens will be represented by?

A

A vertical line with arrow heads at each end

53
Q

In a ray diagram the symbol for a concave lens will be represented by?

A

A vertical line with inverted arrow heads at each end

54
Q

For a lens ray diagram label

Principle axis

Focal point

Focal length

A

Principle axis - hoziontal reference line through the centre of the lens

Focal point - the point where the rays of light are focused

Focal length - the distance from the centre of the lens to the focal point

55
Q

Desribe the role of a converging lens

A

It will take parallel rays of light and converge them to a focal point after the lens.

56
Q

Describe the role of a diverging lens

A

It will take parallel rays of light and diverge them from a focal point in front of the lens

57
Q

Desribe how to draw a ray diagram for a converging lens when the object is a large distance from the lens.

Describe the nature of the image

A
1. Draw a ray of light from the top of the object, through the centre of the lens in a straight line
2. Draw a ray of light from the top of the object so it is parallel to the principle axis, once it hits the centre of the lens it will be refracted through the focal point
3. Where the two rays of light meet draw an arrow and label it the image.

The image will be real, inverted and diminished

58
Q

Desribe how to draw a ray diagram for a converging lens when the object is a close to the lens.

Describe the nature of the image

A

Draw a ray of light from the top of the object, through the centre of the lens in a straight line

Draw a ray of light from the top of the object so it is parallel to the principle axis, once it hits the centre of the lens it will be refracted through the focal point

Draw virtaul rays of light with dashed lines to show where the rays of light appear to have trevelled from.

Where the two virtual rays of light meet draw an arrow and label it the image.

The image will be virtaul, upright and magnified

59
Q

Desribe how to draw a ray diagram for a diverging lens.

Describe the nature of the image

A

Draw a ray of light from the top of the object, through the centre of the lens in a straight line

Draw a ray of light from the top of the object so it is parallel to the principle axis, once it hits the centre of the lens it will be refracted away from the focal point that is in front of the lens.

Draw virtaul rays of light with dashed lines to show where the rays of light appear to have trevelled from.

Where the two rays of light meet draw an arrow and label it the image.

The nature of the image is virtual, diminished and upright

60
Q

Describe specular reflection

A

Reflection from a smooth surface in a single direction is called specular reflection.

Angle of incidence = Angle of relection

61
Q

Describe diffuse reflection

A

Reflection from a rough surface causes scattering: this is called diffuse reflection.

62
Q

Explain how a red filter works

A

A red filter will allows the red wavelength to be transmitted** whilst the wavelengths of all the other colours will be **absorbed.

63
Q

Describe how we can see a blue object.

A

A blue object will reflect** the blue wavelengths into our eyes. All the other wavelengths and colours will be **absorbed.

64
Q

Describe how we can see a white object.

A

If all wavelengths are reflected equally the object appears white.

65
Q

Describe how we can see a black object.

A

If all wavelengths are absorbed the objects appears black.

66
Q

Objects that transmit light are called?

A

transparent or translucent

67
Q

What is the relationship between the temperature of an object and the amount of infrared radiation it emits?

A

The hotter the body, the more infrared radiation it radiates in a given time.

68
Q

Describe a perfect black body

A

A perfect black body is an object that absorbs all of the radiation incident on it. A black body does not reflect or transmit any radiation. Since a good absorber is also a good emitter, a perfect black body would be the best possible emitter.

69
Q

How can a body be at a constant temperature?

A

A body at constant temperature is absorbing radiation at the same rate as it is emitting radiation.

70
Q

How can the temperature of a body increase?

A

The temperature of a body increases when the body absorbs radiation faster than it emits radiation.

71
Q

How can the temperature of a body decrease?

A

The temperature of a body decreases when the body absorbs radiation slower than it emits radiation.

72
Q

What factors affect the temperature of the Earth?

A

The temperature of the Earth depends on many factors including:

1. the rates of absorption and emission of radiation,
2. reflection of radiation into space.
73
Q

What surface is the best emitter of infrared radiation?

A

Matt black surfaces

74
Q

What surface is the worst emitter of infrared radiation?

A

Silver (shiny) surfaces

75
Q

What surface is the best absorber of infrared radiation?

A

Matt black surfaces

76
Q

If an object’s temperature is higher, what will happen to the infrared radiation it’s emitting?

A

Higher temperature -> more infrared radiation emitted in a given time

77
Q

Describe how to find the speed of waves from the standing waves experiment.

A
1. Record the frequency off the signak generator
2. Use a meter ruler to measure the wavelength
3. Use the equation speed = frequency x wavelength
78
Q

What is the relationship between intensity and wavelength for a black body radiator?

A
1. The intensity reaches a maximum for a specific wavelength which depends on the temperature.
2. If the temperature increases the intensity of radiation emitted is greater for each wavelength. (e.g. a hotter star will give out more energy).
3. If the temperature increases the peak intensity occurs at a lower wavelength. (this is why stars are different colours)
4. For lower temperatures the peak intensity occurs over a broader range of wavelength