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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (54)
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1

What is the 1st important thing in understanding pain?

Getting assessed and ruling out anything dangerous

2

What are the other important components of understanding pain?

- Get informed and manage pain from a broad, active perspective
- Make the mind- body link: draw a timeline for emotional impact before, during and after onset of pain
- Identify underlying depression and anxiety early
- Reconnect to life
- Sleep, rest and ongoing physical activity
- Good nutrition

3

What are the things that fall under body information?

- Muscles and bones
- Joints/tendons/ ligaments/ fascia/ skin
- Spinal discs
- Blood vessels
- Organs
- Chemistry

4

What are the environmental factors that contributes to pain?

- Physical
- Mood
- Emotion
- Sleep
- Social

5

How many decision making areas are in the brain?

9

6

What do protection memories look at?

- Previous injury
- Previous pain
- What do i know about this?
- What have i done?
- What have others done?

7

What do protection memories become when a person?

It becomes input/ nerve impulses

8

What happens after protection memories have becomes an input?

The brain processes it and creates an output: pain, movement changes (strength, endurance, stiffness, muscle coordination/balance), changes in body physiology(immune system, endocrine)

9

What is the definition of pain?

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.

10

What is allodynia?

Pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain.

11

What is hyperalgesia?

Increased pain from a stimulus that normally
provokes pain

12

What is sensitization?

Increased responsiveness of nociceptive neurons to their normal input, and/or recruitment of a response to normally sub-threshold inputs

13

What is central sensitization?

Increased responsiveness of nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system to their normal or subthreshold afferent input.

14

What is peripheral sensitization?

Increased responsiveness and reduced threshold of nociceptive neurons in the periphery to the stimulation of their receptive fields.

15

According to ancient china, what was too much yin equated to?

Tissue damage and swelling

16

According to ancient china, what was too much yang equated to?

Pain

17

What are pain afferents usually described as and what are they?

- Slow fibers
- A-delta and C fibers

18

What are other sensory afferents usually described as and what are they?

- Fast fibers
- Usually A- beta

19

What is summation?

The progressive build- up of a nerve signal

20

What does the specificity theory look at?

A specific nerve, in a specific brain region

21

The specificity theory is supported by ____

Finding of nociceptors

22

What are the weaknesses of the specificity theory?

• Pain After Nerve Injury, Phantom Limb
• Hyperalgesia/Allodynia

23

What is the pattern theory?

Nerves conduct info via specific and particular pattern. No specificity of receptors

24

What is the weakness of the pattern theory?

Scientifically proven receptor differentiation
ignored

25

What is the gate theory?

A combination of both specificity and pattern theories.

26

How does a pain stimulus work?

C fibers block the inhibitory interneuron, which will cause a strong activation of pain

27

What effect does rubbing have on gating pain?

It increases the amount of A beta firing, so the transmission of the C- fiber is weak/less

28

What are central control triggers?

Some sort of input or effect from the higher levels of the brain

29

What do central control triggers do?

• Neural Tract - Faster than Pain Pathways
• Send Info on Location/Extent of Injury
• Elicits Descending Efferent Activity
- Influences Gate
• Brain Modules Coming Info

30

What are the weaknesses of the gate theory?

• Ignores Psychological/Mood Components
• Over-Simplified
• Premise - Neural System is Hardwired
• Neural Plasticity - Altered
- Thresholds
- Neurotransmitter Density
- Descending Control
- Cortical Activity