Week 1 cardiac drugs Flashcards Preview

MCM: Cardio > Week 1 cardiac drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 cardiac drugs Deck (29):
1

statins inhibit

HMG-CoA reductase

2

statins cause

-modest HDL raising
-lowers LDL

3

statin tests

-need to test liver function (ALT and AST)
-test at the beginning
-test 2-3 months in
-test annually

4

cholesterol absorption inhibitors name

ezetimibe

5

what does cholesterol absorption inhibitors do

they block the absorption of cholesterol from diet

6

what happens when you take a cholesterol absorption inhibitor

-lowers cholesterol
-reduction in LDL
-no effect on TG or HDL

7

how do bile acid sequestrates (Resins) work

bind bile acids in the intestines and promote their excretion instead of re absorption in the ileum

8

what do resins do?

-reduce LDL
-can cause TG increase

9

resins side effects

-gastrointestinal tract bloating and constipation

10

how do LDL apheresis work

patients plasma is passed over a column that selectively removes the LDL

11

aspirin does

1. decrease fever
2. decrease pain
3. blood thinner

12

how does aspirin work?

it blocks COX 1 and COX 2 irreversible which means prostaglandins, prostacyclins (fever nad pain) and thomboxane (pro-coagulant) will not be active

13

heparin does...

1. blood thinner
-treats heart attacks, unstable angina, DVT

14

how does heparin work?

thrombin inhibition by inactivating CF 10 and 9

15

warfarin (coumadin) does...

1.blood thinner
-dosing is tricky, not as often used to treat MI

16

how does warfarin work...

works by inhibiting vitmain K production and therefore inhibits vitamin K dependent CF
1. CF 2, 7, 9, 10
2. proteins C, S and --> can cause coagulation still

17

clopidogrel (plavix) does...

decreases platelet plug formation

18

how does clopidogrel (plavix) work?

works by inhibiting the ADP receptors on platelets that are important for platelet aggregation

19

confirmation bias definition

the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.

20

cognitive heuristics definition

are simple, efficient rules, hard-coded by evolutionary processes or learned, which have been proposed to explain how people make decisions, come to judgments, and solve problems, typically when facing complex problems or incomplete information. These rules work well under most circumstances, but in certain cases lead to systematic errors or cognitive biases

21

cognitive bias definition

A cognitive bias refers to the systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion

22

prejudice vs discrimination

A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude. Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them. Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior.
--> sexist CEO vs not giving someone the job

23

heuristics

how people make decisions or solve problems
-availability heuristics: using information that you have collected from your experiences (shark attack vs fireworks)
-representative: using a prototype to predict what someone is like (feminist Linda)
-

24

consequences of obesity

1. metabolic syndrome
2. type II diabetes
3. proinflammatory state

25

proinflammatory state

1. CAD
2. hypertension
3. insulin resistance
4.cancer
5. degenerative joint disease

26

stimulants of catabolisis

1. leptin (fat cells)
2. pyy (intestines)

27

stimulants of anabolism

1. ghrelin (stomach)

28

adiponectin

in charge of getting fat out to be burned

29

atherosclerosis steps (6)

1. chronic injury to endothelial wall
2. cholesterol oxidation
3. endothelial cells near damage recuite monocytes
4. monocytes become macrophages and consume oxidized cholesterol--> now are called foam cells
5. foam cells become plaque and arterial wall hardens and thickens (like a balloon)
6. SMC from media move through the plaque and add to the fibrous cap on the inside of the endothelium