Week 102 Swollen Finger Flashcards Preview

Clinical > Week 102 Swollen Finger > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 102 Swollen Finger Deck (22):
1

what are the four main target for antibiotics

disruptor cell wall inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis inhibition of protein synthesis and anti metabolite activity

2

what is the action of mast cells

mast cells release granules such as histamine to attract other immune cells these cells often contribute to allergic reactions and inflammatory diseases

3

what is the most common leukocyte

neutrophils are important in innate immune response as they are the first cell to arrive at the site of inflammation they can cause the auto inflammatory skin condition neutrophilic dermatosis

4

what leukocyte is in increased numbers in allergic

eosinophils are also important in the anti parasite

5

what leukocyte is involved in local hypersensitivity reactions

basophils

6

how do monocytes differentiate into the two types of macrophages

classical activation produces pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and alternative activation produces anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages

7

what is the action of dendritic cells

dendritic cells take up antigens and migrate to local lymph nodes where they present the antigen to T cells

8

what is the target for Beta lactam. give three examples

disruption of the cell wall
flucloxacillin
amoxicillin
co-amoxiclav
beta lactam target gram positive bacteria

9

what is the target for cephalosporins also give three examples

disruption of the cell wall
targets for gram positive bacteria
are able to cross the blood brain barrier
cephalexin treat soft tissue infections
cefuroxime treats community-acquired pneumonia
cefotaxime treat meningitis

10

what is the target for glycopeptide antibiotics give an example and what it treats

glycopeptide disrupt the cell wall
active against gram positive cocci bacteria
vancomycin is the main glycopeptide it is used to treat MRSA
it can be given to patients who are beta lactam hypersensitive

11

what is the action of carbapenem give an example of one and what it is used to treat

carbapenem disrupt the cell wall they are active against gram negative bacteria
imipenem is used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria

12

what do aminoglycosides target give two examples and what they may be used to treat

aminoglycosides are protein synthesis inhibitors as they bind to the 30s subunit of the ribosomes
gentamicin may be used to treat endocarditis and UTIs it also comes in a topical form and can be used to treat Burns and infections on the outside of the eye it may cause inner ear and kidney problems
streptomycin is giving to TB in addition to isoniazid rifampicin and pyrazinamide.

13

what do macrolides target give two examples and their uses

macrolides target protein synthesis they inhibit it by attaching to the 50s subunit of the ribosome
erythromycin is used to treat respiratory infection skin infections Chlamydia and syphilis. it is used in pregnancy to treat Group B streptococcus
clarithromycin used to treat throat streptococcus H pylori and Lyme disease you should not be taken during pregnancy

14

when would linezolid be used

linezolid is a reserve and antibiotic as it is very effective against gram positive bacteria often used against those that are resistant to other medicines
used to treat vancomycin resistant enterococci ,MRSA and drug resistant TB

15

what is the action of tetracycline give one example

tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with the 30s subunit on the ribosome doxycycline can be used to treat acne UTIs gonorrhea and chlamydia

16

what is the action of macrolides give two examples

macrolides inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with the 50s subunit on the ribosome
they are active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria including H pylori and STIs
erythromycin is an antibiotic that can be used to treat respiratory infection skin infections chlamydia and syphilis and can be used in pregnancy to treat Group B streptococcus
clarithromycin can be used to treat throat streptococcus H pylori and lyme disease that it should not be taken during pregnancy

17

what is the action of linezolid

linezolid be used to treat vancomycin resistant enterococci MRSA and drug resistant TB

18

what is the action of fluoroquinolones give an example

fluoroquinolones are DNA synthesis inhibitors effective against gram negative and gram positive bacteria that can cause GI disturbances ciprofloxacin is an example of a fluoroquinolone

19

what is Metronidazole

Metronidazole is a DNA synthesis inhibitor it is an anti microbial and also an anti-fungal you can be used to treat C difficile and is and is used in combination to treat community acquired pneumonia

20

give an example of an RNA synthesis inhibitor that can be used to treat TB

rifampin is used to treat TB and Legionnaire's often given in combination with other antibiotics

21

isoniazid what is it

isoniazid mycolic acid synthesis inhibitor can be used to treat TB activity it is used in combination with rifampin streptomycin and pyrazinamide, latent TB it is used by itself

22

what is nitrofurantoin

this antibiotic is used to treat UTIs it is not to be used in people with kidney problems but it is generally safe in pregnancy