Week 2: Planning of training, periodization and tapering Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2: Planning of training, periodization and tapering Deck (68)
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1
Q

Why has performance improved over the past years?

A

Increase in the amount of training of modern competitors Evolution in training methodology

2
Q

What did coaches observe that was far more effective for performance than preparing an athlete for a year-round competition programme?

A

Only compete in a few competitions per year

3
Q

What is blood volume, hematocrit, arterial pressure and core temperature indicators of?

A

Homeostasis

4
Q

What does training interrupt?

A

Homeostasis

5
Q

What does acute mean? (exercise)

A

Occurs immediately in response to exercise

6
Q

What does acute mean? (exercise)

A

Longer-lasting, alterations in the cell’s gene expression and protein synthesis

7
Q

What are the 3 different stages when the body responds to exercise?

A

Shock Resistance Exhaustion

8
Q

What is the general adaptation syndrome based on?

A

Stress was used as the basis to explain adaptations due to training

9
Q

What is the super-compensation cycle?

A

Following the exercise load, adaptations will occur therefore the athlete will have improved performance in the area

10
Q

What happens during the exercise phase of the super compensation cycle?

A

Reduced energy stores Accumulation of by products Muscle damage

11
Q

What happens in the recovery phase of the super compensation cycle?

A

Energy stores are replenished By-products are removed Tissue micro-damage is repaired

12
Q

What happens in the adaptation phase of the super-compensation cycle?

A

The body achieves a higher level of homeostasis

13
Q

How long does it take for glycogen stores to be replenished after anaerobic exercise?

A

5-24 hours

14
Q

How long does it take for glycogen stores to be replenished after aerobic exercise?

A

10-48 hours

15
Q

How long does it take for heart rate and blood pressure to return to baseline following exercise?

A

1 hour

16
Q

Following resistance training how long does it take for the muscle to be completely normalised?

A

24-36 hours

17
Q

How long does it take for the nervous system to recover?

A

48 hours

18
Q

What does recovery time depend on?

A

Intensity Duration of training Nutrition Individuals

19
Q

What happens if there if insufficient time for recovery between training sessions?

A

Leads to over training

20
Q

What happens if there is too much time for recovery between training sessions?

A

Deterioration of super compensation

21
Q

According to the supercompensation cycle when should training stimulus be applied and why?

A

When the athlete is at the phase of super compensation therefore the athlete is at a higher level of homeostasis

22
Q

What happens to your resting heart rates if you train while recovering?

A

Increases by 5-10 BPM

23
Q

What happens to your blood pressure if you train while recovering?

A

Increases resting blood pressure

24
Q

What happens to your resting lactic acid concentration if you train while recovering?

A

Increases

25
Q

How many time longer does it take for your heart to return to it’s resting rate compared to normal if you train while recovering?

A

2-3 times

26
Q

What happens if you train while recovering?

A

Muscle damage can occur

27
Q

What is periodization?

A

The adjustment of training as the season progresses in a logical fashion through the manipulation of the volume and intensity of training, rest and the particular skills focused upon

28
Q

What is the goal of periodization?

A

Ensure peak performance at optimal times whilst reducing the risk of over-training potential

29
Q

What are the three key components of periodization?

A

Macrocycle Mesocycle Microcycle

30
Q

How long does a macrocycle last?

A

Several months or years

31
Q

How long does a mesocycle last?

A

2-6 weeks

32
Q

How long does a microcycle last?

A

4-10 days

33
Q

What happens in a microcycle?

A

2-3 repeated training units of similar objective and content

34
Q

During the microcycle what do athletes need to avoid fatigue?

A

Regeneration units

35
Q

What does the first part of a mesocycle emphasise?

A

Maximal intensity work related to strength, endurance and/or power

36
Q

What is the purpose of the second part of the mesocycle?

A

Reversed to taper

37
Q

What should the ratio of high to low intense microcycles be in a mesocycle?

A

1:1 or 2:1 High:Low

38
Q

How many mesocycles are in a marcocycle?

A

2 or 3

39
Q

What are the three stages of a macrocycle?

A

Preparation Competitive Transotion

40
Q

What happens if a mesocycle is longer than 8 weeks?

A

The athlete may lose motivation

41
Q

What is the longest phase of the macrocycle?

A

The preparatory phase

42
Q

What is the shortest phase of the macrocycle?

A

Competitive phase

43
Q

What does linear peridoization simply change?

A

Volume and intensity

44
Q

What are the characteristics of linear periodization?

A

Long training periods Less reliance on supercompensation More general training over specific

45
Q

What must the first period of a meacrocycle be?

A

Fundamental preparation

46
Q

Why is the fundamental preparation period important?

A

To develop the necessary pre-requisites for top performance by improving the level of functional capacities of the organism

47
Q

How the the preparation period divided?

A

General and specific portions

48
Q

What happens in the general preparation phase?

A

High volume training which develops working capacity, general physical preparation and improves technical aspects and basic tactical skills

49
Q

What happens in the specific preparation phase?

A

Lower volume but higher intensity Clear shift from general to specific training

50
Q

What is the purpose of the competition phase of the macrocycle?

A

To peak fitness through further increases in training intensity and decreases in training volume

51
Q

What is the purpose of the pre-competitive phase?

A

Bridge between the sport-specific preparation phase and the actual competition

52
Q

What is the purpose of the competitive phase?

A

To optimise performance at predetermined points in time

53
Q

How long should the taper be before the main competition?

A

8-12 days

54
Q

What happens during the transition phase of macrocycle?

A

Non sport specific recreational activities are performed at low intensities with low volumes

55
Q

What are the main characteristics of the transition period?

A

Reduction in training load Lack of competition Aim is to maintain the acquired fitness levels

56
Q

What are the three types of periodization?

A

Monocycle Bi-cycle Tri-cycle

57
Q

What are the limitations of traditional periodization?

A

Difficult to develop multiple abilities at once Only allows three competitions per year

58
Q

What is undulating periodization?

A

There is no dramatic progressive decrease in volume and increase in intensity across the macrocycle

59
Q

What happens to the intensity in undulating periodization within the weekly and daily programme?

A

Drastic variations of intensity

60
Q

What is block periodization?

A

Highly concentrated specialised work-loads Minimal number of targeted abilities

61
Q

What are the three phases in block periodization?

A

Accumulation Transformation Realisation

62
Q

What happens in the accumulation phase of block periodization?

A

Developing basic abilities (high volume)

63
Q

What happens in the transformation phase of block periodization?

A

Sport specific abilities (techniques, special endurance, tactics)

64
Q

What happens in the realisation phase of block periodization?

A

Restore athletes and prepare them for competition (modelling performance)

65
Q

How long does the accumulation, transformation and realisation phase of block periodization last?

A

6-10 weeks

66
Q

What does residual training effects mean?

A

Retention of changes in the body state and motor abilities after cessation of training beyond certain time period

67
Q

In block periodization what happens to the length of the accumulation and realisation phase when the importance of the competition increases?

A

The accumulation phase decrease and realisation phase increases

68
Q

Label the diagram for tradition periodization

A
  1. General
  2. Specific
  3. Pre-comp
  4. Comp
  5. Transition