Week 3 - Animal Communication Systems ! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 - Animal Communication Systems ! Deck (12):
1

Can animals communicate?

ofcourse
-howl
-feed me
-pay attention
-hiss

Set REPERTOIRE of LIMITED ITEMS

lang? no.

2

The European honey bee communication

- Scout bees perform 1 of 2 dances, which indicate:
> distance
> direction
> extent of food source

innate, though young bees get better w practice

ROUND DANCE:
- food within 10m
- SPEED/DURATION = richness of foodsource
- scent on bee = type of food

btwn - either

TAIL-WAGGING DANCE
- over 100m away
- orientation of straight line portion = direction according to sun
- length of time wagging = distance
- excitation level = richness

3

Birds - Calls and Songs

CALLS = short note sequences assoc. w events/activities
small no. w discr functs:
- flight, flocking feeding
- special alarm, general alarm
- aggression/pleasure

SONGS = establish TERRITORY, attract MATES
- may be innate (cuckoo), partially/completely learned
> general chara innate, finer learned
- some spcs male/female calls distinct by hormonal syst

4

whales and dolphines

SMALL NO. of discrete VOCALISATIONS with reference to EXTernal
conditions or INTernal states

Pure tones
- whistles (signature, distress)
- squeaks

Pulsed sounds
- Reg. Clicks (echo)
- Bark/yelp/moan (emotional sts)

5

Primate Communication

- Highly CONTEXTUALISED
- Multimodal
> GESTURE
> POSTURE
> SMELL
- more signs than birdcalls, no real diff in /complexity/

6

Hockett's Design features for Human Language

- 16
- can be used in comparing diff comms systems

4 relevant:
1. ARBITRARINESS
2. DUALITY OF PATTERNING
3. DISPLACEMENT
4. PRODUCTIVITY/CREATIVITY

7

Hockett's ARBITRARINESS

Human lang = SYMBOLIC, ergo arbitrary

Most animal = NOT. EG: Acoustic structure of birdcalls often directly related to function

Example of Arbitrary Animal: Honey Bee Dance

8

Hockett's DISPLACEMENT

Human Lang = communicate about something DISTANT in TIME/SPACE or IMAGINARY
- FREEDOM FROM STIMULOUS/RESPONSE

Animals = NOT. EG: Bees cant say "wonder if theres good nectar in Buenos Aires?"

9

Hockett's DUALITY OF PATTERNING

Human Lang = combo of (meaningless) parts to meaningFUL wholes
(morphemes/phones/words)

Animals = signs NOT decomposable into Parts

10

Hockett's PRODUCTIVITY/CREATIVITY

Human Lang units can be combined to create INFINITE NUMBER of entirely novel sentences

Animals = NOT

11

what constitutes HUMAN language

Lang competence involves:
- SEMANTICS
- SYNTAX
- PRAGMATICS

12

People who think animals are using language are engaging in

- wishful thinking
- "clever hans" effect
- overinterpretation (nim chimpsky - copying, random, prompting. washoe - transforming data by deleting markers)
- anthropomorphism fallaxy