Week 5 Upper and lower Respiratory Tract Infection Flashcards Preview

Year 2 clinical pathology > Week 5 Upper and lower Respiratory Tract Infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 5 Upper and lower Respiratory Tract Infection Deck (161)
1

What are the different normal flora in the URTI?

Streptococcus viridans, commensal Neisseria spp., diphtheroids, anaerobes.

2

Give examples of infections that cause transient colonisation post antibiotics?

Coliforms, Pseudomonas, Candida

3

What respiratory pathogens are usually asymptomatic but can become symptomatic due to another infection?

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes
Sit in your throat

4

How are Upper respiratory tract infections transmitted?

Coughs and sneezes spread diseases”
DROPLET spread. Hand washing and decontamination very important

5

What group of people are most likely to get URTI?

Most often v. young children/teenagers
Winter/viral. Bacterial and viral common in children.
Also immunocompromised people

6

What is the strategy used when GP are prescribing antibiotics? For kids and adults over the age of 3

Address concerns – have 1 of 3 strategies
No prescribing
Delayed prescribing
Prescribe if risk of complications

7

What is the main disease that caues a cold?

Rhinovirus

8

What are less common causes of the cold?

Coronoviruses
RSV,
Parainfluenza viruses
Enteroviruses
Adenovirus

9

What is symptoms of cold?

Nasal discharge, sneezing and sore throat

10

What is Coryza?

The common cold

11

What are the symptoms of Rhino-sinusitis?

Facial pain, nasal blockage, reduction smell

12

What is the aetiology of Rhino-sinusitis?

Post viral inflammation

13

What are the causes of Rhino-sinusitis?

Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Haemophilus influenzae,
Streptococcus milleri group,
anaerobes,
fungal

14

What are the complications of Rhino-sinusitis?

chronic sinusitis,
Osteomyelitis,
meningitis,
cerebral abscess

15

What are less common causes of Rhino-sinusitis?

Allergic and non-infective causes

16

What are the investigations for Rhino-sinusitis?

Imaging
Sinus washouts

17

When using imaging for a patient with Rhino-Sinusitis what are you investigating?

Imaging for severe or suspected complications – Sinus X-ray, CT or MRI scans. See air fluid levels.

18

What is Sinus washouts ?

Diagnostic and therapeutic after referral to ENT.

Relieve some of the symptoms and so be able to get some sample to give to microbiologists

19

What are the treatment for Rhino-Sinusitis?

Treatment - if viral, no antibiotics. Many patients improve without antibiotics anyway.

Otherwise cover suspected/proven bacterial pathogens e.g. amoxicillin if severe disease

20

What is a uncommon cause of Rhino-Sinusitis?

Dental problem

21

What is the difference between pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation.
If the tonsils are primarily affected, it is called tonsillitis.
If the throat is primarily affected, it is called pharyngitis.

22

What are the viral causes of pharyngitis/tonsillitis?

Viral (RSV, Influenza, Adeno, Epstein barr virus, HSV1)

23

What is the main bacterial causes of pharyngitis/tonsillitis?

Streptococcus pyogenes,

24

What are the rarer bacterial causes of pharyngitis/tonsillitis?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Corynebacterium diphtheria
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chlamydophila pneumoniae

25

What investigation is done when a person is suspected of pharyngitis/tonsillitis?

Throat swabs and proper history

26

What are the signs and symptoms of pharyngitis/tonsillitis?

Sore throat , dysphagia, fever, headache, red tonsillar/uvular area +/- exudate. Lymphadenopathy

27

What does Group A Streptococcal Infection cause and in what group of people?

Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis in children

28

What complications can be caused when a child is infected with Group A Streptococcal Infection?

acute glomerulonephritis
rheumatic fever
scarlet fever

29

How do you prevent a child infected with Group A Streptococcal Infection getting scarlet fever?

Aim to prevent this rheumatic fever by giving penicilli

30

What other conditions do you try and prevent from occuring in a patient with Group A Streptococcal Infection?

Prevent suppurative complications too --> e.g. otitis media and quinsy (peritonsillar abscess))

31

What causes glandular fever?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV

32

Who is at most risk of glandular fever?

Teenagers and older. Often asymptomatic.

33

What are the symptoms of glandular fever?

Sore throat, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy

34

What are the complications of glandular fever?

splenic rupture

35

What should you avoid when a person has glandular fever?

Avoid ampicillin (mac-pap rash, not a true allergy)

36

Why should you not do contact sport for some weeks when you have glandular fever?

Cause your spleen to rupture

37

How do you test for glandular fever?

Serology – IgM/IgG, Paul Bunnell Test/PCR

38

What is Diptheria?

An acute and highly contagious bacterial disease causing inflammation of the mucous membranes in the throat

39

What causes diptheria?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

40

What are the symptoms of diptheria?

Malaise, fatigue, fever +/- sore throat

41

What is the treatment of Diptheria?

Treatment is Erythromycin/ penicillin/antitoxin

42

What is the prevention steps for Diptheria?

Prevention is Immunisation
travel history

Notifiable disease

43

What caues Thrush?

Candida, usually after antibiotics or steroids

44

What happens in Epiglottitis?

MEDICAL EMERGENCY
Cellulitis of epiglottis (“cherry red”) – airway obstruction

45

What are symptoms of Epiglottitis?

Fever, irritable, difficulty speaking (“hot potato”) and swallowing.
Leans forward, drools.
Stridor, hoarse.

46

How can you investigate a epiglottitis?

Lateral neck X-ray – enlarged epiglottis

Must send blood cultures

47

When a person has epiglottitis why do you send blood cultures and not a mouth swab?

You do not swab or examine epiglottis unless already intubated, or can intubate immediately (theatre).

48

What is the treatment of epiglottitis ?

maintain airway, cefotaxime

49

What used to be a common cause of epiglottitis?

H. influenzae type B prior to immunization

50

What is laryngitis?

Inflammation of the larynx

51

What is the symptoms of acute laryngitis?

Hoarse/husky voice, globus pharyngeus (lump in throat), fever, myalgia, dysphagia

52

Cause of acute laryngitis?

Usually viral and self-limiting, occasionally it is bacterial

53

Is antibiotics given to a person with acute laryngitis?

No unless if the patient has a severe disease

54

What are non infection causes of acute laryngitis?

voice abuse, malignancy

55

What is Croup/Acute laryngotracheobronchitis?

Inflammation of larynx and trachea after infection of upper airways

Common in children

56

What is the cause of Croup/Acute laryngotracheobronchitis?

Viral esp. parainfluenza type 2 therefore NO antibiotics also Respiratory Syncytial Virus

57

What is the treatment for Croup/Acute laryngotracheobronchitis?

Symptomatic treatment only

58

What is the cause of Whooping cough?

Bordetella pertussis - Gram negative coccobacillus

59

Does whooping cough just happen in children?

No happens in adults as well as the immunization can wear off.

Very contagious

60

How do you test fr whooping cough?

Pernasal swab and PCR

61

How long is the incubation period for whooping cough?

1-3 wks

62

What are the initial symptoms of whooping cough?

Initially catarrhal phase – runny nose, fever, malaise

63

What is catarrhal?

is a disorder of inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body

64

What is the symptoms of whooping cough after few weeks?

Dry non productive cough. This becomes whooping/paroxysms. (short bursts on exhalation, then inspiratory gasp which is the whoop.

65

What is the treatment of whooping cough?

Supportive and erythromycin
May be prolonged convalescence - weeks

66

What is the complications of whooping cough?

otitis media,
pneumonia Often secondary infection or aspiration
Convulsions.
Subconjunctival haemorrhages

67

How is whooping cough prevented?

Immunisation very important. Erythromycin to household contacts/Notifiable disease

68

What is Otitis externa?

Infection of the external auditory canal

69

What is the symtpoms of Otitis externa?

Pain, itch, swelling and erythema, otorrhoea

70

What are the 3 different types of Otitis externa?

Acute OE, chronic OE and malignant OE.

71

What are the caues of acute Otitis externa?

S. aureus and Pseudomonas spp.(esp. after swimming)

72

How do you test for acute OE?

Swab ear canal and give to microbiology

73

What is the treatment for acute OE?

Toilet with saline and/or alcohol and acetic acid. Wick insertion. Topical drops

74

What is the cause of Otitis externa - chronic?

Irritation from drainage from perforated tympanic membrane.

75

What is the symptoms and treatment of chronic OE?

Itchy
Treat underlying cause

76

Why should aminoglycosides be avoided by a person with chronic OE?

Avoid aminoglycosides if perforation. Resistance may form and sensitisation occurs with prolonged courses

77

What happens in Otitis externa - malignant?

Severe, necrotizing. Spreads from local area more deeply. May invade bone, cartilage and blood vessels.

78

When is Otitis externa - malignant life threatening?

Spread to temporal bone, base of skull, meninges and brain.

79

What is the cause of malignant OE?

Often Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

80

What is the symptoms of malignant OE?

pain, drainage of pus from canal

81

Who is likely to have malignant OE?

Elderly, diabetics, immunosuppressed

82

What is the treatment for malignant OE?

Treat 4-6 weeks altogether e.g. with iv ceftazidime then ciprofloxacin

83

What is Otitis media (OM)?

Middle ear inflammation. Fluid present in the middle ear.
V. common in children

84

What is the symptoms of OM?

Fever, pain, impaired hearing. Red bulging tympanic membrane

85

What is the cause of OM?

VIRAL. H influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis

86

What test do you do for OM?

Swab any pus discharging

87

What is the treatment of Otitis media?

Treatment, if not unwell WATCH and treat symptomatically (decongestant etc) and review early. If unwell give amoxicillin.

88

What is Mastoiditis?

Inflammation of the mastoid air cells after middle ear infection. Pus collects in cells and may proceed to necrosis of bone

89

It mastoiditis common?

Much lower incidence after introduction of antibiotics.

90

What are the signs of Mastoiditis?

Signs as Acute Otitis Media, but pain/swelling over mastoid too

91

What sample do you need to confirm the infection of mastoiditis?

Need bacteriology samples
Imaging – CT helps to assess extent

92

What is the treatment of Mastoiditis?

Similar treatment to acute OM unless Gram negatives are suspected and then need broader spectrum cover as per organism isolated

1st line treatment is co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanate)

93

What are Ludwig’s angina, Lemierre’s Syndrome?

Deep fascial space infections of head and neck

94

What are gingivitis/peridontal infection?

Infection of the gums

95

What are the different ways of diagnosing a infection? 6 answers

Send pus/throat swab/blood cultures
Gram stain
Culture
Sensitivity testing
Reference laboratory work (typing, toxin detection)
Serology and antibody detection

96

When is Erythromycin mainly used?

If pencillin allergic and Whooping cough/diphtheria

97

What is classed as lower respiratory tract?

Below the larynx

98

Give examples of LRTI and what part of the LRT they affect?

Tracheitis --> affecting the trachea

Bronchitis affecting the bronchus and bronchioles

Pneumonia --> lung

Abscesses --> lung

99

What are the different types of Bronchitis?

Acute

Chronic but can have acute exacerbations

100

What are the different types of Pneumonia?

Community acquired

Hospital acquired

Ventilator acquired

Aspiration

101

What are the Predisposing factors to LRTI?

Loss or suppression of cough reflex / swallow
e.g. stroke, coma, ventilation

Ciliary defects e.g. PCD  similar to CF

Mucus disorders e.g. CF

Pulmonary oedema – fluid flooding alveoli ( warm and moist harbour organisms)

Immunodeficiency: congenital or acquired (Multiple examples!)

Macrophage function inhibition e.g. smoking

102

What viruses cause LRTI's?

- Influenza
- Parainfluenza
- Respiratory syncytial virus
- Adenovirus

103

When do fungus cause LRTI?

When the person is immunosuppressed most of the time

104

Examples of fungi that cause LRTI?

Aspergillus sp.
- Candida sp.
- Pneumocystitis jiroveci

105

Examples of baceteria that cause LRTI?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Klebsiella pneumonia
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Chlamydophila pneumoniae
- Legionella pneumophila
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis

106

What happens to the bronchi in Acute bronchitis?

Inflammation & oedema of trachea and bronchi

107

What are the symptoms of acute bronchitis?

Cough (typically dry), dyspnoea & tachypnoea

Cough may be associated with retrosternal pain

108

What is the Epidemiology of acute bronchitis?

Most frequent in winter, in children

109

What are the Causative viruses for acute bronchitis?

Viruses are the usual cause (rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, influenza)

110

What are bacterial causes of acute bronchitis?

Bacterial causes less common (H.influenzae, M.pneumoniae, B.pertussis)

111

Is it more common for a bacteria or a virus to cause acute bronchitis?

Virus more common than bacteria

112

How is diagnosis of acute bronchitis made?

Usually there is no diagnostic test for mild presentation.
Might look at vaccination & previous exposure history e.g. influenza, B. pertussis to exclude some organisms

113

When is culture of respiratory secretion done in case of acute bronchitis?

If looking for a specific cause e.g B pertussis and the person is very unwell but not routine

114

What is the treatment for acute bronchitis?

Supportive treatment for healthy patients

Those with severe disease or co-morbidities may require oxygen therapy or respiratory support

Antibiotics only if bacterial cause is suspected or found

115

What is the definition of chronic bronchitis?

Cough productive of sputum on most days during at least 3 months of 2 successive years (which cannot be attributed to an alternative cause)

116

Chronic bronchitis is common in what type of people and what is assoicated with it?

Most common in men and >40yrs
Associated with smoking, pollution, allergens

117

What is the main difference apart from duration of symptoms between acute and Chronic bronchitis?

In Chronic the inflammation and oedema of airways is mediated by exogenous irritants rather than infective agents seen in acute bronchitis.

118

Is chronic bronchitis caused by different infective agents to acute bronchitis?

Patients have chronic exacerbations mediated by same infective pathogens as acute bronchitis

119

What is the presentation of bronchiolitis?

Inflammation and oedema of bronchioles

120

What is the symptoms of bronchiolitis?

: Acute onset wheeze, cough, nasal discharge, respiratory distress (grunting, retractions, nasal flaring)

121

What is the epidemiology of bronhciolitis?

Peaks in winter and early spring, in infants 2-10 months.

Primarily paediatrics

122

What is the main cause of Bronchiolitis?

Most commonly caused by Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)--> 75% of cases

123

What percentage of children by age of 2 have been infected by RSV?

80%

124

What are less common causes of bronchiolitis?

Also caused by parainfluenza, adenovirus, influenza

125

What is the diagnosis of bronchiolitis?

Chest x-ray

Full blood count

Microbiological diagnosis: usually nasopharyngeal aspirate of respiratory secretions sent for viral PCR

126

What is the treatment for bronchiolitis?

Supportive: oxygen, feeding assistance ( due to problems of eating due to irritants)

No clear evidence to support steroids, bronchodilators, ribavirin

Antibiotics only if complicated by bacterial infection

127

What is pneumonia?

Infection affecting the most distal airways and alveoli

Formation of inflammatory exudate

128

What are the two anatomical patterns of pneumonia? Give a description for both

Bronchopneumonia
Characteristic patchy distribution centred on inflamed bronchioles & bronchi then subsequent spread to surrounding alveoli

Lobar pneumonia
Affects a large part, or the entirety of a lobe
90% due to S.pneumoniae
Solid consolidation
Demarcated by the lob of the lug

129

Which type of pneumonia is the most common?

Community acquired pneumonia

130

When do you get hospital acquired pneumonia?

Pneumonia developing >48hrs after hospital admission

131

What are the causative orgaisms of hospital acquired pneuomina?

Different causative organisms to CAP, especially if >5days after admission: enterobacteriaceae & Pseudomonas sp.

132

What sub group is Ventilator acquired pneumonia (VAP) in?

Subgroup of HAP

133

What is the cause of Ventilator acquired pneumonia?

Pneumonia developing >48hrs after ET intubation & ventilation

Et > preaching there natural defence and causing impairment of swallowing and coughing > increase risk of infection

134

What is the cause of Aspiration pneumonia?

Pneumonia resulting for the abnormal entry of fluids e.g. food, drinks, stomach contents, etc. into the lower respiratory tract

Patient usually has impaired swallow mechanism

135

When is CAP mostly seen and by what group of the population?

Peak age 50-70 years
Peak onset midwinter to early spring

136

What are the different acquisition of CAP? GIve example of organims

Person-to-person or from a person’s existing commensals (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae)

From the environment (L. pneumophilia)

From animals (C.psittaci)

137

Bacterial cause of CAP can be divided into what two groups?

Typical and Atypical bacteria cause

138

What is meant by Atypical pneumonia?

Traditionally described cases which failed to respond to penicillin or sulpha drugs and no organism could be identified

Now recognised as atypical organisms due to different clinical presentation and treatment is slightly different

139

Name 5 typical organisms of CAP?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Staphylococcus aureus
Klebsiella pneumoniae

140

Name 5 atypical organisms of CAP?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophilia
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Chlamydophila psittaci
Coxiella burnetii

141

What are the symptoms of bacterial CAP?

Usually rapid onset
Fever / chills
Productive cough
Mucopurulent sputum
Pleuritic chest pain
General malaise: fatigue, anorexia

142

What are the signs of bacterial CAP?

Tachypnoea
Tachycardia
Hypotension

Examination findings consistent with consolidation:
Dull to percuss
Reduced air entry, bronchial breathing
Can hear crakles
Alveoli trying to work against the fluid

143

Atypical Mycoplasma pneumonia is commonest at what time of year and by who?

Autumn epidemics every 4-8 years
Commonest in children & young adults

144

What is the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia, common symptoms and possible complications?

Diagnosis: serology (difficult to culture)

Main symptom is cough

Rare complications: pericarditis, arthritis, Guillain-Barre, peripheral neuropathy

145

Outbreak of Legionella pneumophilia is assoicated with what?

Colonises water piping systems
Outbreaks associated with showers, air conditioning units, humidifiers

146

What are the symptoms of Legionella pneumophilia, how is it diagnosed?

High fevers, rigors, cough: dry initially becoming productive, dyspnoea, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion

Bloods: deranged LFTs, SIADH (low sodium

147

What percentage of people who have CAP in adults are affected by Chlamydophila pneumoniae?

3-10% of CAP cases in adults

Highest incidence in elderly

148

What are the symptoms of Chlamydophila pneumoniae
and do they vary by age?

Causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents & young adults

Incidence highest in the elderly – may experience more severe disease

149

What is Chlamydophila psittaci
assoicated with?

Associated with exposure to birds

150

What 3 factors would make you consider pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila psittaci?

Consider in those with pneumonia, splenomegaly & history of bird exposure

151

What is Splenomegaly?

Abnormally enlarged spleen

152

What are the symptoms would a person infected with Chlamydophila psittaci
may show?

Rash
hepatitis
Haemolytic anaemia
Reactive arthritis

153

Is influenza a complicated disease? What are the symptoms and recovery time?

IT is a uncomplicated disease.

Fever, headache, myalgia, dry cough, sore throat

Convalescence takes 2-3 weeks

154

What type of patients does primary viral pneumonia commonly occur in? What are the symptoms associated?

Occurs more commonly in patients with pre-existing cardiac & lung disorders

Cough, breathlessness, cyanosis

155

How would priamry viral pneumonia develop into secondary bacterial pneumonia?

It could develop after initial preiod of imporvement but follows infection caused by:

S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, S.aureus

156

How do you diagnose viral pneumonia?

Viral antigen detection in respiratory samples using PCR

157

What are the 3 non- microbiological investigations for CAP?

Routine observations: BP / pulse / oximetry
Bloods: including FBC / U&E / CRP / LFTs
Chest X-ray

158

What are 5 microbiological investiations recommended by BTS for all moderate- severe cases of CAP?

Sputum Gram stain & culture
Blood culture
Pneumococcal urinary antigen
Legionella urinary antigen
PCR or serology for:
Viral pathogens
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chlamydophila so

159

Why should we bother establishing a diagnosis?

Optimise antibiotic selection
Limit the use of broad spectrum agents
Identify organisms of epidemiological significance
Identify antibiotic resistance and monitor trends
Identify new or emerging pathogens

160

What is CURB test based on and what does it tell you?

Confusion
Urea >7mmol/l
REspiratory rate >30
Blood pressure

You get 1 point on each point--> tell you how severe the CAP is and where should treatment happen

161

What are the prevention methods of LRTIs?

Pneumococcal vaccination (S. pneumoniae)

Patients with chronic heart, lung and kidney disease
Patients with splenectomy
May repeat after 5 years in certain populations

Influenza vaccination for vulnerable groups (annually)

Over 65s
Chronic disease, multiple co-morbidities