Week 6: Kidney Histo Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6: Kidney Histo Deck (40):
1

What are the largest collecting ducts in the kidney called?

Papillary ducts

2

Minor calyx epithelium type

Transitional

3

Where is transitional epithelium found?

Unique to urinary system. Found in minor and major calyx, ureter, bladder, (+prostatic urethra in males)

4

What are the "basketball-like) structures in the lobules?

Renal corpuscles

5

Where in the kidney are arcuate vessels found?

Between the cortex and medulla

6

What are the components of a nephron?

Renal corpuscle/glomerulus + proximal convoluted tubule + Loop of Henle + distal convoluted tubule

7

What structures make up medullary rays?

Ascending and descending Loops of Henle + collecting tubule

8

What is the vasa recta?

A loop of capillaries that lies parallel to the Loop of Henle

9

What makes up the glomerulus?

Entirely arterial vascular apparatus with afferent and efferent arterioles

10

What are podocytes?

Cells that make up the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule. They have primary and secondary processes that interdigitate to form slit pores.

11

What composes the glomerular basement membrane?

Fusion of secondary processes of podocyte with endothelial cells.

12

How can the macula densa be recognized?

Closely packed cells in distal tubule with Golgi apparatuses are on the opposite side of the cell, away from the lumen.

13

What does the macula densa do?

Senses NaCl concentration. When low -> release of renin by juxtaglomerular cells + vasodilation of afferent glomerular arterioles which increases GFR

14

What regulates the flow of particles across the GBM?

Size of capillary pore + heparan sulfate's highly negative charge.

15

Which collagen type makes up the lamina densa of the GBM?

4

16

Mesangial cell function

GBM constantly getting plugged up. Mesangial cells clean out and turn over the GBM (and support it)

17

What makes up the bulk of the cortex?

Proximal tubules

18

How can proximal tubules be identified histologically?

Fuzzy/brush luminal border. Most eosinophilic tubule type, interdigitation via lateral membrane folding, mitochondria in cytoplasmic folds -> striated appearance

19

What is the role of apical canaliculi? Where are they?

Proximal tubules. Resorption of proteins from the initial filtrate.

20

Proximal convoluted tubule and thick segment of descending limb epithelium type

Cuboidal

21

Thin segment (distal portion of desc LoH) epithelium type

Simple squamous

22

Vasa recta descending and ascending component names

Arterioli recti and veni recti respectively

23

Distal straight tubule epithelium type

Simple cuboidal

24

How are distal straight tubules recognizable histologically?

Less eosinophilic and larger lumen than prox tub. Cleaner apical and lateral borders. More nuclei around circ of tubules. Basal memb folds & mitochondria.

25

Which component of the kidney is sensitive to ADH?

Distal convoluted tubules

26

Collecting tubule epithelium type

Cuboidal to low columnar

27

What are the two cell types for collecting tubules, and what do they do?

Light (CD): respond to ADH. Dark (IC/intercalated): adjust pH (alpha -> H+ prod and release to urine, beta -> bicarbonate)

28

Where are juxtaglomerular cells found?

Wall of afferent (and occasionally efferent) arterioles at vascular pole

29

Juxtaglomerular cell function

Release renin, maintenance of normal blood pressure

30

Angiotensin II activity

Constriction of arterioles and stimulates release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex

31

What does aldosterone do? Where is its site of action?

Acts on distal tubules to increase Na and water reabsorption -> inc BP

32

Inferior capillary network via vasa recta - what do the midcortical and supra regions have?

Much shorter loops that for the peritubular network

33

Nerve supply of kidney

Sympathetic -> contraction of vasc smooth muscle.

34

Result of sympathetic activity in kidney

Contraction. In afferent arteriole -> dec filtration rate. Opposite in efferent.

35

Effect of loss of kidney nerve supply

Increased urinary output. Innervation is not functionally necessary.

36

What layers make up the ureter?

Mucosa (submucosa indistinguishable) - muscular coat - adventitia.

37

Ureter epithelium

transitional

38

Stellate cross-section suggestive of...

Ureter cross section

39

Smooth muscular pattern in ureter

inner longitudinal, outer circular

40

Layers of urinary bladder and how they compare to the ureter

Same layers but has 3 muscular layers that go spiral - longitudinal - circular.