Week 8- Acids/Bases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 8- Acids/Bases Deck (30):
1

2

Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) is lost from

GI tract and in urine

3

Recovery of New Bicarbonate of Secretion of Ammonium

  • metabolism of glutamine in renal tubule cells produces ammonium ions
  • Glutamine = 2 NH4+  +. 2 HCO3- 
  • Ammonium ions are actively secreted via Na+/NH4+ counter-transporter
  • NH4+ is then excreted and newly formed bicarbonate is reabsorbed

4

the respiratory system regulates acid-base homeostasis by

altering the rate and depth of ventilation

5

Elimination of CO2 is faster than it is produced

Respiratory Alkalosis

6

Common cause of respiratory alkalosis

hyperventilation, may occur with anxiety, fever, sepsis, or strenuous exercise

7

Decreased pH = increased H+

acidosis

8

Renal compensation involves invoking renal mechanisms discussed to ______

retain or eliminate bicarbonate as appropriate

9

Increasing ventilation will ______ CO2 from the body, thus reduce acid

remove

10

Decreasing ventilation will _____ CO2 that can form H+ and increase acid

retain

11

Increased pH = decreased H+

alkalosis

12

2 other examples of buffers

phosphate (effective in urine and intracellular fluid) Proteins such as hemoglobin

13

the renal system regulates acid- base homeostasis by

altering bicarbonate reabsorption, generating new bicarbonate, or by secreting bicarbonate

14

H+ lost in

vomitus or urine

15

Metabolic acid-base disturbances are all imbalances NOT caused by _______

too much or too little CO2 in the blood

16

acid and base homeostasis is largely regulated by

the respiratory and renal systems

17

  • Bicbarb levels in the blood are above or below normal rang of 22-26 mEq/L
  • Second most common acid-base imbalance
  • Blood pH and HCO3- levels are below normal

Metabolic Acidosis

18

  • Rising blood pH and HCO3-
  • acid loss or bicarbonate ion retention are causes
  • examples include vomiting (acid loss) and constipation (excess absorption of HCO3- by colon)

Metabolic Alkalosis

19

Important extracellular fluid buffer

Bicarbonate

20

Causes of Respiratory Acidosis

inadequate ventilation, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, emphysema

21

Bicarbonate reabsorption depends on _______

H+ secretion

A image thumb
22

Molecules that release hydrogen ions (protons) in solution

Acids

23

Occurs by failure of respiratory system to function

Respiratory acidosis or alkalosis 

24

Bicarbonate is reabsorbed using _______ in the renal tubule cells

carbonic anhydrase enzyme

25

Causes of metabolic acidosis

  • excess alcohol ingestion (forms acetic acid)
  • loss of bicarbonate (persistent diarrhea)
  • diabetic ketoacidosis 

26

Whats happening in respiratory acidosis

  • CO2 accumulates in the blood
  • Decreasing pH and increasing PCO2 are characteristic

 

27

Bicarbonate is freely filtered at the ______

glomerulus

28

Molecules that can accept a hydrogen ion

Bases

29

Most common type of acid-base imbalance

Respiratory acidosis

30

How is a new Bicarbonate Ion generated

  • Recovery of new bicarbonate by secretion of H+ occurs when all filtered bicarbonate has been reabsorbed
  • Secreted H+ combines with non-bicarbonate buffer (HPO4 2-)
  • traps H+ in HPO4 2- ion for excretion
  • Net gain of new bicarbonate ion occurs