Flashcards in Weimar Germany- Hitler's rise to power Deck (19):
Hitlers background information
Hitler served in the German army and win the iron cross.
Hitler found it hard to accept the armistice, believing that Germany was on the verge of winning the war when it was betrayed by politicians.
The German workers party (DAP)
Hitler stayed in the army after the war, working for the intelligence service.
He came across the German workers party, lee by Anton drexler and he joined in 1919.
In 1920, the party was renamed the national socialist German workers party (NSDAP or nazi party).
After the armistice
After the armistice, the original government fell, civil unrest and workers strikes, fear of a communist revolution grew which led to major parties forming the Weimar Republic.
The armistice led to Germany losing a tenth of its land and the dismantling of its army.
The early growth and features of the nazi party.
Hitler was put in charge of recruitment and propaganda, attracting new members to the party.
By 1921, hitler challenged drexler and took over leadership of the party.
The political meetings generated violence which led to hitter developing the SA to protect nazi speakers.
It attracted many ex-soldiers, which generated extra votes from employees from the freikorps(unemployed soldiers from the war).
The SA disrupted opposition meetings, especially the communists and beat up opposition supporters.
The early growth and features of the nazi party
By 1922, the nazi party had 6000 members rising to 50,000 two years later.
The nazi party drew up the twenty-five pint programme. This was their political manifesto. Vague and deliberately designed to appeal to as many voters as possible.
Key features of the twenty-five point programme
The Union of all Germans to form a greater Germany.
Getting rid of the treaty of Versailles.
Citizenship of the state to be granted only to people of German blood. Therefore no Jew was to be a citizen of the nation.
All newspaper editors and contributors to be German and non-German papers to appear only with the permission of the government.
The Munich putsch, 1923
In 1923, Hitler, supported by General Ludendorff, made his first attempt to seize power.
Background to the Munich putsch
The Weimar Republic was unpopular as ever due to hyperinflation.
Hitler wanted to overthrow he republic with the putsch and then march on Berlin.
In 1922, the Italian leader, Mussolini, had successfully marched on Rome and taken over the Italian government with the army. Hitler knew he would have to win the army over to be successful.
Events of the Munich putsch
On 8th November 1923, hitler and the SA burst into a beer hall, disrupting political meetings attended by kahr, seisser and lossow.
The three leaders were held at gunpoint until they offered support to the putsch.
The following day, hitler and Ludendorff, along with 3000 supporters and the SA, matchethe through Munich.
The previous support by political leaders changed their minds and organised troops to resist hitler.
On the 11th November, hitter was arrested and the nazi party was banned.
Consequences of the Munich putsch
In 1924, hitler was charged with high treason.
Hitler used his trial to attack the Weimar Republic.
The court was sympathetic to hitler and gave him the minimum sentence- five years.
In prison, hitter wrote 'mein kampf' which contained his political views and relished he had to legally win over Germany.
The growth of unemployment and the Wall Street crash.
Germany was 'dancing on a volcano'. In October 1929, the Wall Street crash led to US loans being recalled and this led to high unemployment and shops were forced to close.
By 1932, over 6 million people were unemployed.
The three main reasons for growth in support of the nazi party were?
Hitler himself, The SA and Joseph goebbels
Reasons for growth in support of the nazi party- Hitler
Hitler was built as a superman from his posters which boasted his skills as a speaker.
Hitler attempted to brainwash the German people by blaming the Weimar Republic for the economic crisis. Hitler believed he could unite Germany In the time of crisis.
Reasons for growth in support for the nazi party- The SA
By 1932, the SA had 600,000 people organising parades in towns to set a good example in a time of disruption.
They were also used to intimidate opposition, especially the communists.
Reasons for growth in support of the nazi party- Josef Goebbels
Goebbels was a master of propaganda and used every possible method to get across the nazi message:
Posters targeted audiences and were timed to have maximum impact with the message being simple but clear.
He also ordered planes to fly hitler across Germany to speak at numerous rallies every day.
How hitler became chancellor
Franz von papen was appointed chancellor after bruning stepped down in in May 1932.
Von papen held several elections to attempt to build support for his party, the centre party.
These elections had a poor outcome as they only showed the overwhelming support the nazi party possessed.
How hitler became chancellor (part 2)
The elections held by von papen meant he could only rule by decree. The nazi party won 230 seats from the elections meaning they were the largest party in the reichstag.
This led hitler to demanded he be instated as chancellor but president Hindenburg, who disliked hitler, rejected.
Von papen organised further elections, losing even more seats, resulting in a loss of confidence from Hindenburg, which led to von papen's resignation.
How hitler became chancellor(part 3)
After von papen's resignation, von schleicher was appointed as chancellor, only lasting 2 months.
Von papen was determined to regain power. To do this, he met hitler in January 1933 when they agreed hitter should lead a government with von papen as the vice-chancellor.