Flashcards in Weimar Republic Deck (49):
What did lots of people in Germany want by the end of 1918?
A revolution similar to the Russian Communist Revolution.
3. Give two examples of revolutionary feeling in Germany.
i.Kiel Mutiny - Soldiers refused to fight the British Navy.
ii.40,000 dock workers take control of themselves. Government control is lost in Bavaria and Hamberg.
4.When did the Kaiser leave Germany?
9th November 1918. He gets replaced by a democratic government led by Friedrich Ebert.
5. What did the Weimar Republic do first?
End WW1 on the 11th November 1918. The Armistice.
6.What were three impacts of the First World War.
i.New government. People were unsure about it.
ii.Financial problems. $37billion had been spent.
iii.Social unrest. Friekorps - unemployed soldiers who were nationalists.
7.Name three problems with the new Weimar Republic.
i.The voting system meant that every Political Party got a share in running the country, this led to lots of uneasy teaming up of Parties that had not much in common.
ii.There were 29 different Political Parties.
iii.Article 48 meant the President could take charge in an emergency, meaning the chance of a new Dictatorship was built into the constitution of the country.
8.Why did Germans find the Treaty of Versailles humiliating?
i.The Germans were given no say in the Treaty. It was a Dikat - dictated peace. Germany had to accept all blame for WW1, when the reality of the causes was more complex.
ii.Germany felt weak and insecure because of the loss of armed forces and land.
iii.The amount they had to pay back was going to increase poverty and difficulty. The war had already cost Germany billions of pounds.
9.Why was the Treaty of Versailles a challenge to the Weimar government?
i.People thought Ebert/the government were weak for signing it. They believed a strong government would have stood up to the Treaty.
ii.People began to view the armistice, signed in November 1918, differently. All of a sudden it seemed like a bad idea. The amount of people missing the Kaiser increased. The Weimar Government got a new nickname - “The November Criminals”. People felt they had been stabbed in the back by the government signing the Treaty.
10. What were the big challenges faced by the Weimar Government between 1919 and 1923?
A country ruined by war.
Revolutionary mood in the country.
Treaty of Versailles.
Left and Right Wing Uprisings.
11. What happened in the 1919 Spartacist Uprising?
50,000 Communists rose up.
They attempted to capture the government newspaper.
SDP had to use right-wing Friekorps to put them down.
12. What happened in the Kapp Putsch?
Right-wing groups hated the SDP.
Attempts to disband the freikorps was hated.
Wolfgang Kapp rose up but people supported the SDP not him.
13. What political murders were there in the 1920s?
376 murders between 1919 and 1922.
Matthias Erzberger was killed in 1921. He was a “November Criminal”
14. Why was the Ruhr invaded by France in 1923?
Germany could not keep up with the money it owed France through reparations.
15. What were the consequences of the invasion of the Ruhr?
Workers refused to cooperate with the French.
There was protest and the amount that Germany was producing fell dramatically. The government had to start printing money to pay wages.
16. What did hyperinflation do to Germany?
There was a rush to the shops, as prices changed by the hour.
Savings became worthless. Every class of people was affected.
17. In what year did the DAP publish the 25 Point Plan?
18. Who was the leader of the DAP who Adolf Hitler worked with at first?
19. What did the DAP Party eventually become?
The Nazi Party
20. What were two things that the 25 Point for Plan for Germany outlined should happen.
1.Get rid of the Treaty of Versailles.
2.All Jewish people should be expelled from Germany.
21. Why was there an increase in hatred for Jewish people in Germany after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
Step 1: The Treaty of Versailles weakened Germany and damaged peoples pride in their country.
Step 2: This made people think differently about the revolution that had got rid of the Kaiser in 1918, maybe the protests should not have happened.
Step 3: Back in 1918, lots of the leaders of the protests against the Kaiser had been Jewish so they became an easy target for blame.
22. How was the Nazi Party formed?
The DAP was one of 29 Political Parties set up in the Weimar Republic.
Adolf Hitler spied on it and ended up speaking at a meeting.
Anton Drexler was impressed with him as a speaker. Hitler ended up working with Drexler and writing the 25 Point Plan, eventually he changed the name of the Party to the Nazi Party and became leader in 1921. He persuaded everyone to give up their right to choose the leader of the Party in 1922.
23. Who were the SA?
The SA were a private army for the Nazi Party, recognisable by their Brown Shirts. Their job was to patrol meetings and beat up opponents of the Nazi Party, opponents like Communists.
24. Why did the Nazis set up two newspapers?
To spread the Nazi message of hatred of the Treaty of Versailles and of Jewish people. The two papers were Der Sturmer and the Peoples Observer.
25. Who was Herman Goerring and General Ludendorff?
Herman Goerring was a World War One hero and deputy leader of the Nazi Party. Ludendorff was a well respected nationalist who was friends with Hitler but not a fully signed up Nazi. In the early 1920s, Hitler thought he would need the support of Ludendorff in order to take control of Germany.
What happened to support for extremists during the middle 1920s?
Support for extreme parties went down and support for Democractic parties went up.
A key example: There was an 8% voting swing in favour of centre democratic parties between 1924 and 1928.
When did Hitler write Mein Kampf?
During the years he was in prison after the failed Munich Putsch.
Name three ways the Nazis reorganised themselves at the Bamberg Conference in 1926.
The Nazis were split into local regional Parties with each region getting their own leader.
The Nazis set up women and youth organisations.
The Nazi Party arranged parts of their organisation that would look into big areas like finance, education and industry.
What were examples of big businessmen the Nazis received donations from in the years 1924 to 1929?
Thyssen, Krupp and Bosch.
33. Why was support for extremes like the Nazi Party lower in the years 1924 - 1929.
Germany recovered financially, which settled life for people. People were more willing and able to see the strengths and benefits of living in a democracy like the Weimar Republic.
35. What event happened in 1929 which negatively affected Germany?
The Wall Street Crash. This had the consequence of stopping American loans coming to Germany, meaning that factory production slowed and unemployment began to rise.
36. What are two examples that show the effect the Depression had on Germany.
Unemployment rose steadily to 6 million people out of work by 1932.
40% of industrial (factory) production disappeared.
37. Who did workers in Germany begin to support during the Depression years?
The Communist Party.
By 1931, there were 100 Communists who had been elected to the German Reichstag.
38. How did rising support for the Communists help the Nazi Party?
The Middle Classes in Germany gradually began to support the Nazis as they were seen as the most likely alternative to a Communist takeover.
39. How did Joseph Goebells use propaganda very effectively during the Depression years?
Posters with clear and powerful messages were produced: “work and bread”, “our last hope”.
Technology → radios.
Hitler was flown to different places throughout the country in order to give speeches and raise his profile around the country.
40. How did running for President of the Weimar Republic help Adolf Hitler and the popularity of the Nazi Party?
In 1932, Hitler challenged Hindenburg for the role of President. He was never going to win because Hindenburg was a hero.
However, this did increase the awareness of Hitler and made him a candidate to become Chancellor of the Weimar Republic once Hindenburg had to appoint a new one.
41.How did Bruning, the “hunger” ChaWhy did von Papen and von Schleicher fail as Chancellors?
ncellor, weaken support for the Weimar Republic during the Depression?
He made mistakes that led to the support for extreme parties, like the Nazis, to grow
He increased taxes to pay for unemployment benefits. This reduced the amount of money in the country and added to food shortages and protest.
He increased taxes on rich Prussians, which increased support for the Nazis from big business and the upper classes. Hitler was fast becoming a more sensible option for Chancellor.
Why did von Papen and von Schleicher fail as Chancellors?
Von Papen was Chancellor from June-November 1932. He made a deal with Hitler and the Nazis to help him get support, in return he lifted the ban of the SA so the SA started being more violent on the streets. He also could not lead the Reichstag or make any strong decisions.not lead the Reichstag or make any strong decisions.
Von Schleicher could not control the Reichstag. He had no authority and resigned in December 1932.
43. What mistake did both men (Hindenburg and von papen) make about Hitler?
They underestimated him and thought they could control him once Hitler became Chancellor.
44. Precisely, how did the increased support of the Nazis show in their number of seats in the Reichstag?
1930 - 107 seats
Nov 1932 - 230 seats
July 1932 - 196 seats
1933 - 288 seats
45. How did the Depression help Hitler become Chancellor in January 1933?
As unemployment rose more people voted for the Nazis.
This was because the Nazis promised a strong government who would make decisions and end the Depression.
The Nazis promised different groups in Germany different things. For example, workers were promised work and bread, Middle classes and big business were promised protection from the Communists taking control and economic stability.
How did the pressure of big business leads to Hindenburg appointing Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933?
German businessmen had lost a lot of money during the Depression as industrial production had dropped by 40%. They also had to repay loans to the banks. They had lost faith in the Weimar Republic, but feared the Communists taking control. They supported the Nazi party.
Businessmen and rich landowners put pressure on Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor.
What did the increased representation of the Nazis in the Reichstag mean for Hitler becoming Chancellor?
Hindenburg could not ignore the Nazi party or Hitler’s claim to be Chancellor
what were the 5 steps that lead to Hitler becoming chancellor?
May 1932 - Bruning resigns and von Papen becomes Chancellor.
July 1932 - The Nazis win 230 seats in the Reichstag.
Nov 1932 - von Papen quits as Chancellor.
December 1932 - Schleicher is sacked.
January 1933 - Hitler becomes Chancellor.
42. What things did Hitler do to gradually end Democracy?
Banned Trade Unions
Banned Political Parties
Set up a Show Court (People's Court)
43. When was the Night of the Long Knives?
44. What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives in helping Hitler set up a Totalitarian State?
It got rid of a rival within the Nazi Party (Ernst Rohm).
It allowed Hitler to remove the SA and make the SS more important.
It led to the whole German army taking an oath of loyalty to Hitler, which meant he had total control over all the military power of the country.
what was the ss
By 1936, the SS controlled all Germany’s police and security forces
What was the SD
Spied on known opponents and critics of the Nazi Party and the German government