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1

Dr. David Livingston

1860's-1870's
"living saint"
had mission in Tanzania
Presbyterian
spent time didn't come home 1870m
found alive headlines read "HE LIVES!"

2

Khedive

1869
Ruler of Egypt
subject of turkish empire
lets french build Suez canal
gambled and lost lots of money, eventually loses control of canal to British and French

3

Arabi

1881
lead nationalist revolt against khedive
wins revolt, khedive abdicates to son who is puppet of British
allows British and French to take over Egypt

4

Boers

mid 17th century
dutch farmers settle in Cape town
leave to go into interior of Africa because British seize Cape Town
Allows British to discover gold and diamonds in Cape Town

5

Cecil Rhodes

late 19th century
travelled to Africa for health reasons (TB)
had monopoly on diamond production
richest man in the world
wanted to build railroad from Cape Town to Cairo
basically starts Boer war

6

3 Emperor's League

1873
Germany, Austria, and Russia
Bismarck wants to make alliance with Austria and Germany to defend against France
doesn't work
then tries Dual alliance

7

Dual Alliance

1879
One alliance between Germany and Austria and one alliance between Germany and Russia
pressure is put on Russia to agree
alliance works

8

Triple Alliance

1882
Added Italy to Dual Alliance
in order to piss French off
France now isolated and poses no threat to Germany
allows Bismarck to protect his creation

9

Kaiser

late 1800's early 1900's
Ruler of Germany
William 2nd
29 years old, inexperienced
wants to ally with England say he will annoy them into and alliance
fires Bismarck
wont sign Reinsurance Treaty with Russia
Russia goes and allies with french, Bismarck's plan falls apart

10

Double Entente

1894
Alliance between France and Russia
British also join within decade
Germany will have to fight a two front war

11

Triple Entente

1907
France, Russia, and Britain
Europe now in 2 sides triple alliance and triple entente
being to plan for world war 1

12

Schlieffen

Early 20th century
head of German war plans
has to fight war on 2 fronts
fights two one front wars
France is main priority
has to defeat French to win the war

13

Disinterested

early 20th century
term that means have no dog in the fight
British interferes in 1st Balkin war between Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro
fight over boundaries

14

Sarajevo

1914
capital of Bosnia
place of assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and Isabella
Assassins are Serbian
Austria invades Serbia who is allied with Russia
World War 1 breaks out

15

Marne

1910's
Germans fail to get into Paris at this location
both sides dig trenches
beginning of trench warfare

16

Treaty of Versailles

1919
Treaty of WW1 between Entente powers and Germany
Germany has to sign and pay $32 bil., lost all colonies, army, navy, airforce, war guild clause (All Germany's Fault)
league of nations formed after

17

Clemenceau

1919
at treaty of versailles
host, french politician
wanted revenge against germany
wants them to pay $133 bil.
argues with Wilson

18

David Lloyd George

1919
at treaty of versailles
prime minister of England
promised to punish Germany hard
on Clemenceau's side against Wilson
he is swing vote

19

Wilson

1919
at treaty of versailles
President of USA
wants league of nations
wants Germany not to be punished harshly
opposite from Clemenceau
doesn't get league of nations approved by US senate, still formed without US
manages to get Germany's sentence reduced

20

Orland

1919
at treaty of versailles
Italian Prime minister
Italian people think he is humiliated

21

Tsar

early 1800's
ruler of Russia
Alexander 1 (1801-1825)
rules unrestrained, no parliament, autocrat

22

The Decemberist Revolt

1825
Russian military officers calling for constitution in Russia
against Nicholas 1
Nicholas 1 puts Decemberists in jail
cracks down on travel, freedom of speech, and free press

23

War in Crimea

1854-1857
cause is who gets to control sites in Holy Land
Sites had been controlled by Turkey
Russia wanted rights exclusively Nicholas 1
France and Britain ally with Turkey
British and French win

24

Witte

late 1800's early 1900's
finance minister of Russia
creates planned economy with Tsar
same industrial practices as England/horrible conditions
workers blame Tsar Nicholas 2 and revolt

25

Social Revolutionary Party

1901
Russian political party
SR's
opposed to industrial revolution
against Tsar Nicholas 2
Opposed to Western world

26

Constitutional Democrats

1903
Russian political party
cadets
middle class party making money off of industrial rev.
want constitution, limited monarchy, and parliament
Want to be like Western world
Nicholas 2 doesn't like them b/c constitution

27

Russian Social Democratic Party

1898
Russian political party
leader was Gregory Pielchanov
Communist party
Where power rested in Russia
11 mil. members
most powerful is General Secretary

28

Gregory Pielchanov

late 1800's
Marxist leader of the Russian Social Democratic Party
was thrown out of country
contacted Marx and asked for advice
helped by Lenin

29

Lenin

1870-1924
Helps Pielchanov
son of Bureaucrat, lived in exile in Switzerland for a while
publish "What is to be Done?"
gives answer to Russia and form small political party
says not to give into appeasement
peace, bread, land
encourages troops to leave WW1
Seizes power in Russia at St. Petersburg
Sign peace treaty with Germany
Revolution against him in Russia, manages to keep power, but has to decide who to succeed him, Stalin or Trotsky

30

Duma

early 1900's
provisional government
promised parliament from Tsar Alexander 3
buys Tsar supporters and time
people still oppose Tsar food shortages lead to revolt of cadets
Epic fail, Tsar ends up abdicating thrown

31

Russian Soviets

1917
a strike committee formed in Russia
workers and soldiers council
takes over St. Petersburg
make Tsar Alexander 3 abdicate
Russia became de-facto republic
pyramid system, villages, territories, regions, supreme

32

Trotsky

early to mid 1900's
Lenin's right hand man
Captured St. Petersburg for Lenin
in charge of Red Army
struggle between him and Stalin for power after Lenin
Stalin wins

33

Russian Secret Police

early to mid 1900's
KGB
internal and external affairs worked for communist party
arrested counter revolutionaries

34

Russian Military

early to mid 1900's
Had power in Russia
initially was army
controlled by communist party

35

Stalin

1879-1953
born poor, real name is Dzugazhvili, inarticulate but good at desk work
becomes leader in 1930's
wants command economy and workers paradise, collective farms, destruction of capitalism
Party purges, totalitarian state

36

Totalitarian

20th century word
two aspects: politics/culture and economy
Stalin used this, everything had to be communist party and communism, so did Mussolini, and Hitler
Party purges occur as result of this
no true freedoms, groups, private enterprise, etc.

37

Mussolini

1883-1945
lower middle class, editor of Avanti (leading socialist newspaper)
in favor or going to world war 1 with British and French
expelled from socialist party b/c pro war
said it was Rome's fault Italy was humiliated at treaty of Versailles
Became prime minister, est. dictatorship, spent lots on infrastructure

38

Enforced savings (Italy)

early 1900's
happens because of wartime economy
people forced to save money because of lack of consumer goods during war
after war people want to spend their money
rush of inflation and wages unequal to inflation, causes conflict

39

Fascio

early 1900's
action groups formed by Mussolini
means bundle of sticks in Italian
stronger together than apart
appeals to soldiers
allows Mussolini to come into power

40

Weimar Republic

1919
constitution proclaimed in Germany
2 house legislature, universal suffrage, civil liberties
started by Kaiser but full of people not loyal to him
Versailles Treaty blamed on them

41

Ebert

early 1900's
1st Chancellor of Germany
sign treaty of Versailles
not blamed on him by people but blamed on Weimar Republic

42

Lunger

early 1900's
head of Christian Social Party in Germany
anti-semite
influenced Hitler greatly

43

Hitler

1889-1945
served in war, started beer Hall Putch
Anti-semite, people liked this
eventually asked to be Chancellor of Germany
Enabling act lets him do whatever he wants
euthanasia and Sterilization of people with disabilities and the Jews
Invades Czech Republic, Sudetenland, and Rhineland starting WW2
commits suicide in 1945, Germany falls

44

The Enabling Act

1933
Hitler asks for this
gives chancellor unlimited power for 4 years to do what is necessary against a national revolution
totalitarian government eventually
Nazi is only legal party (totalitarianism)

45

Rudolf Hess

1933-1945
taught national socialism is applied biology
figure in Nazi Regime before Hitler
One people, one state, one ruler
wanted to exterminate non-Arians and get Germans back in Germany

46

Racial Hygiene

mid 1900's
cleanse Arian race of bad elements
wanted active agents in medical profession
sterilization and euthanasia
judged to be "life unworthy"

47

Sydney Fay

mid 1900's
American who taught at Ohio State
wrote books on origins of 1st world war
argued treaty of Versailles too harsh on Germany
said every country that participated was responsible

48

Neville Chamberlain

1937
new prime minister of England
negotiates with Hitler for settlement in Munich
lets Germany have the Sudetenland
thinks peace has been reached with Germany

49

Churchill

mid 1900's
becomes Prime minister after Chamberlain
strong critic of appeasement policy
organizes Britain for war
DTF (down to fight)

50

El Alamen

mid 1900's
Germans invade Africa/ Egypt, trying to get to Middle East for oil
they are stopped by Egyptian army and have to retreat
really a turning point for Germany, begin loosing war

51

Molotov

1946
gave speech in Russia denouncing West as enemies
Western response given by churchill
Iron Curtain started
Molotov cocktail

52

Denazification

1945
Nazi's removed from office after war
some put on trial
French and British consider all involved Nazis
Soviets and US a little more lenient

53

Demilitarization

1945
want no Germans with weapons after the war
all institutions of German Army eliminated

54

Dismantling

1945
war industries removed in Germany
not much to be demolished
what was considered military industry?
Ex: could they still have automobile manufacturers?

55

Re-education

1945
happens after war
Britain, France, US, and Soviets trying to get people of Germany out of Nazi ideology
effort to re-unify Germany

56

Federal Republic of Germany

mid 1900's
West Germany France, Britain, and US
Bonn is capital
lead by Adenhanen and then Brandt
was rebuilt faster because of help from US

57

German Democratic Republic

1945
East German, Soviets
Capital is Berlin
lead by Ulbricht
was rebuilt much slower than West Germany
tried to kinda copy West Germany

58

Adenhanen

1948
Right wing
1st Chancellor of West German
during war huge opponent of Nazis
was arrested and put in Nazi jail

59

Brandt

1969
Left wing
3rd Chancellor of West Germany
leader of Anti-Nazi underground in war
blew up bridges and factories of Nazi's
Hitler's most wanted man

60

Ulbricht

mid 1900's
1st chancellor of Eastern Germany
communist
no association with Nazis during war

61

de Gaulle

mid 1900's
President of France's 4th republic
in war he spent time in England and only went back for the battle of Normandy
completely withdrawn form Nazis so chosen as leader of France

62

European Recovery Program

1947
Lead by secretary of state General Marshall
also known as Marshall plan
US sends money $17 bil. to Western European countries
helps their economies
they end up spending money in US or Canada
Co-operation of industry not competition

63

General Marshall

mid 1900's
secretary of state, came up with Marshall Plan
helps Western Europe recover with US money
main goal is for Europeans to use aid wisely
co-operation in industry rather than competition
successfully helps Europe
copied by Eastern Europe with Council of Economic Assistance (end up failing)

64

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

1949
includes France, Britain, US, Canada, Italy, and Belgium
alliance between all of them
any attack on a country in NATO is an attack on all
Guarantees American support in Europe
makes it where Western European countries will no longer go to war
East's version is Warsaw Pact

65

European Economic Community (EEC)

1955ish
Signed in Rome, know as common market, EU
get Western European countries to trade as a single market
universal weights/measures, metric system
Euro currency created and adopted by some countries in EU
problem is there is universal currency but no universal economic policy

66

Khruschev

1894-1973
General secretary of Russia after Stalin
Stalin's protege
Puts down people's demonstrations about dislike for lack of rebuilding of East Germany
Sends troops to kill protestors in Hungary, Czech Republic, and East Germany
looks bad on TV
Puts missiles in Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis
falls from power after CMC

67

Imre Nagy

1956
Stalin's general secretary in Hungary
wanted to dismantle collective agriculture, wanted multiple political parties, and wanted Russian troops to go home
Khruschev sends tanks to kill protestors
1st crisis put on national television

68

Brezhnev and Kosygin

mid to late 1900's
replaced Khruschev
Brezhnev is most important figure

69

Dubeck

mid to late 1900's
general secretary of Czech Republic
tries to learn lesson from Nagy
wants to end collective agriculture, wants free expression,, allow other political parties
again Khruschev sends in troops

70

SALT 1 and 2

1972 and 1980
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Between America and Russia
1st with Nixon 2nd with Carter
Saves Russia money on weapons allowing them to rebuild their economy

71

Wojtyla

1978
Pope John Paul 2
Polish man
behind Iron Curtain but anti-communist
urges Polish to fight against communism and remain faithful to Catholic church
leads to formation of Solidarity party in Poland

72

Solidarity Party

1980
leader is Walesa
illegal, but everyone in Poland joins
is eventually repressed by Polish gov.
comes back in 1987 and not put down by Gorbachev
new age of liberalism in Russia

73

Gorbachev

1985 comes into power as General Secretary of Russia
doesn't send troops in to stop revolution in Poland
wants West to help him with technology in Russia
wants modernization through openness and restructuring
tries cultural change before economic change
issues freedoms of speech, press, other political parties, etc.
ultimately fails

74

Glasnust

1985
1st part of Gorbachev's plan
"openness"
allows free press, assembly, political parties, etc.
Cultural part of modernization

75

Perestroika

1985
2nd part of Gorbachev's plan
"restructuring"
means dramatic rush of inflation in order to make Russian currency relevant
knows people of Russia will endure pain because of this
pain will be worth it for Russia's economy
economic part of modernization

76

Putin

late 1990's to present
member of KGB that is eventually put in charge of Russia
Russian patriot who believes in Russian values
close to Russian Orthodox church
claims not communist but lets be honest...
basically opposite of Knruschev