Western Civilizations Midterm ID's and Essays Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Western Civilizations Midterm ID's and Essays Deck (74)
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1

Huguenots

late 1770's
French protestants
Calvinists
Louis 14th persecuted them
were forced to convert

2

State's General

late 1770's
France's Parliament
Didn't meet for 165 years
was suppose to be advisory to king

3

Jaques Turgot

late 1770's
Chief minister to Louis 16th
comes up with vingtieme: 5% tax for all land
Wanted to cut Queen's spending (Antoinette)
fired by Louis 16th
France's last hope of reform

4

Vingtieme

flat tax
proposed by Turgot so France would no long be broke
5% tax on all land
King denied it many times
Last hope for France

5

Necker

1776
Swiss bankers
appointed as minister to Louis 16th after Turgot
determines Turgot was right
leaves after king enters american rev.
also not friends with Marie Antoinette

6

3 Estates

late 1770's
Clergy: 300 reps
Nobility: 300 reps
Rest: 600 reps
called by Louis 16th as part of states general

7

Constituent Assembly

late 1770's
Merging of all 3 estates
take tennis court oath
will not leave until France has a constitution
eventually make a constitution for France
constitution includes limited monarchy, and rights for all french citizens
Also called National Assembly

8

Bastille

late 1770's
Military prison
attacked by the workers of France
looking for guns
victory of working class
many killed

9

Muniment room

A room where feudal lords keep i-owe-yous
peasants burn these
lords can no longer prove they owe work
all part of being paranoid the monarchy was starving them out

10

Rouget de Lisle

1790's
young officer from the south
composed marching song
it is now France's national anthem
La Marseillaise

11

Sans- Culottes

late 1700's early 1800's
literally means without pants
workers the held Louis 16th captive
stormed royal palace with arms because of Louis' alignment with Austria
helped establish a republican government in place of monarchy

12

Convention

The national convention elected in 1792
was suppose to establish France's first democratic republic
stop invasion of Austria
kill king
write new constitution

13

Girondins

1790's
one of the groups of deputies that vied for leadership of the convention in France
relative moderates
middle class professionals
wanted weak national state but strong regions
not committed to republic
were arguing with Jacobins were kicked out by Jacobins

14

Jacobins

1790's
one of the groups of deputies that vied for leadership of the convention in France
radicals
national spokesmen for sans- culottes
arguing with Girondins
purged the Girondins from power

15

Robespierre

1790's
French Lawyer
leader of the sans- culottes
reign of terror leader
drove moderates out of legislature
advocated for terror ( the systematic repression of internal enemies)

16

Hebert

late 1700's
Jacobin
was kicked out early because of outspokenness
declared outlaw by constitution

17

Directory

1795-1799
A committee in France made up of 5 men
French revolutionary government from 1795-1799
men were chosen by the upper house of the legislature
tried to avoid concentration of authority
separation of powers in new system

18

Prefectures

late 1700's early 1800's
people who are educated that helped Napoleon run France
Frances was in 83 little parts and they helped run each part

19

Austerlitz

Early 1800's
A place where Napoleon's army was victorious
in Germany
39 states now instead of hundreds
reformed Germany, new freedoms
nationalism arises in Germany

20

Metternich

foreign secretary of Austria
host of Congress of Vienna
developed congress/ metternich system
believed Louis should have cracked down on reforms
no one wants him in Austria because he rejected all petitions
fired by king

21

Congress of Vienna

1814
leaders meet to rewrite Europe's map
make sure Napoleon's reign doesn't happen again

22

Castlereagh

foreign secretary of UK
at Congress of Vienna
believed Louis 16th should have given a little and made concessions

23

Alexander 1st

Russian Czar
at Congress of Vienna

24

Fredrick William 4th

king of Prussia
at Congress of Vienna
appointed liberals to make a constitution
said no to Frankfurt Assembly's Constitution
Abdicates to William 1st

25

Lord Tallerrand

from France
worked for Louis 16th and Napoleon
at Congress of Vienna

26

Congress System

developed by metternich
said put map into stone
said powers at be should meet every year i order to nip all revolutions in the bud
believed in cracking down

27

T. R. Mathus

1798
wrote first essay on population
first practitioner of political economy
said population was getting to big and exponential growth needed to stop

28

Dr. Jenner

helped to eradicate smallpox
developed world's first vaccine
used on cattle first
makes birth rate go up anymore

29

Robert Blackwell

stock breeder
breed animals for meat, dairy., wool, etc.
changed people's diets
made birth rate and fertility go up

30

Thomas Telford and James Macadam

early 1800's
road builders
telford= business
macadam= engineer
improve roads dramatically
people can now get around cities and transportation improves

31

domestic system

early modern period practices
farmer grows
middle man
weaver
sold
done at people's houses

32

combination

early 1800's
a precursor to unions
working class trying to fight back
doesn't work because bourgeoisie have all the power
combinations act passed to stop it
attack machines

33

Luddites

early 1800's
came from name Ned Ludd
may or may not have been a person
when workers attacked machines they said Nedd ludd put them up to it
breaking machines became punishable by death

34

Robert Owen

coined the word Socialism
wanted to take people out of factories to form small industrial communities outside of cities
utopists
built a couple in Scotland

35

Manchester massacre

1819
started in St. Peter's field
meeting held by Henry Hunt there ( revolutionary)
soldiers march in and killed and injure people
absolute disaster

36

Borough

towns with charters
rotten borrows are towns with charters that no one lives in

37

Great Reform Act 1832

1832 (obviously)
gives upper regions of middle class men the right to vote
Parliament now has to answer to the Bourgeoisie
unrepresented cities, now better represented
lowered property qualifications
more men have right to vote

38

New Poor Law

1834
Old poor law took care of people through parishes
everyone would be taxed in order to help the poor
growth in pop put a strain on this, so did industrial rev.
Bourgeoisie don't want to pay, so they do away with old poor law
people now have to go to terrible poor houses

39

Municipal Corporations Act

1835
towns could only do what charters allowed
some cities did not have charters
charters granted to many cities
could now hire firemen, policies, etc.

40

Civil Licensing of Marriage

1836
marriage use to have to be in church of England
people who were not Anglican had to get married twice
now just one marriage
documented in court

41

White Terror

early 1800's
aristocratic sons demanded land back after French rev.
plunder
political murders
go through people's homes
hire goons

42

Berry

the king's nephew
was assassinated in white terror

43

Polignac

1820's
Charles 10th chief minister
said he had nightly visions of the Virgin Mary
she advised him on politics
said strong aristocracy

44

Indemnity fund

1 billion franks that was suppose to be raised by tax payers
was suppose to pay off the aristocratic sons
lost property in French rev.

45

Primogeniture

all property goes to oldest son
wanted to keep land intact
use to be divided up among children
Polignac wanted this

46

Thiers

newspaper man
Wrote history of Napoleon
appointed prime minister of France
ended french rev. by starving out paris
killed many Parisians revolting against 3rd republic

47

Louis Philippe

early to mid 1800's
July monarchy
becomes France's king
cousin of Charles
chamber of deputies invites him to be king
wanted domestic peace at home and to promote industrial rev
ends up alienating everyone
eventually abdicates thrown because protestors shot by patrol troops

48

Louis Napoleon Bonapart

mid 1800's
nephew of Napoleon
opponents of Louis Philippe rally around him
loses to Prussians
won election for president of France, wants to be in power, stays for 10 years
called for plebiscite, people wanted him in power
Declared France 2nd Empire, he is Emperor
lots of public works projects
educational reform, freedom of press, yearly debate on speech from the throne
Gives Ollivier power when he dies
Makes France a republic

49

Provisional government

1848
formed after Louis Philippe abdicated
consisted of Lamatine (poet), Arago (astronomer), Louis Blanc (socialist), and Albere (button maker)
write constitution to make france republic
socially conservative, france is going to be a middle class republic

50

Mazzini

mid 1800's
Italian nationalist
advocated for Rome, believed Rome should absorb all of Italy
Leads opposition of pope
allies with Garibaldi
controlled Rome for a brief period
Rome eventually given back to pope thanks to France

51

Manin

mid 1800's
1st president of Venice
wants to fight for freedom against Austrians
the pope says no so, everyone turns against pope

52

Frankfurt Assembly

mid 1800's
1st national parliament in Germany's history
job is to write constitution for a unified germany
decide germany will be a federal union, with emperor, 2 house legislature, freedom of speech, etc.
Fredrick William 4th turns it down
whole thing is an epic fail

53

Risorgimento

means rebirth
was one of Mazzini's practices
wanted to unite Italy and convince people they were Italian

54

Garibaldi

mid 1800's
sailor, soldier, ally of Mazzini
first went to venice to help Manin out
organizes defense of Rome
set out to take control of Rome again
had to surrender to Cavour

55

Camilio Cavour

mid 1800's
Aristocrat
wanted to extend Piedmont to control Italy
Brought economic reform to Piedmont including national bank, tax and tariffs, trains and steamships
Piedmont became model for all other Italians
Turned to Louis Napoleon as ally
Everything in Italy eventually becomes Piedmont
Garibaldi surrenders

56

Plebiscite

vote for one certain question
allowed everything in Italy to be absorbed into Piedmont
also used to gauge Louis' Napoleon's popularity in France

57

Orsini

mid 1800's
tried to kill Louis Napoleon
rolled grenades at imperial carriage
was executed

58

Auto Von Bismarck

mid 1800's
Pomeranian land owner, diplomat
Minister of Prussia
has same views as William 1st to expand army
breaks law when chamber of deputies says no and takes taxes to extend army
fights wars against Denmark, Prussia, and France (wins all three)
makes Prussia all of Germany and becomes Chancellor with almost complete power

59

1864 War against Denmark

1860's
Shlechbuig and Holstein are wanted by Bismarck
War is very short
Austria is angry and condemns this with help of the German confederation
Bismarck now goes t war with Austria

60

1866 Austrian Prussian War

1860's
7 weeks war
Austrians humiliated
Austrians lose many men and Prussians lose very few
Austria has to permanently separate from Germany
Austrians also have to give Venetia to Italy

61

Franko Prussian War

1870's
Crisis with Spain, Bismarck interferes to piss French off
appoints Leopold as King of Spain
Prussians outnumber French 2 to 1
Almost no one dies, French surrounded
Gambetta and a few troops keep fighting for France
Ultimately France loses, has to pay 5 bil. Franks, gives up Alsace and Lorraine, William 1st emperor of Germany

62

EMS dispatch

1870's
William 1st tries to cool things down with French
Bismark changes wording and publishes document
Looks like Prussia is snubbing French
Riots break out
France declares war on Prussia

63

Gambetta

1870's
During Franco Priussian war, leader of those who would not give up
fought for France
Makes Bismarck squeeze Paris even harder
eventually surrenders in 1871

64

Kulturkampf

1870's
culture war
Bismarck hated Catholics and fought them
bishops deprived of powers, catholic schools monitored, civil marriage mandatory
Catholic church pushes back
Bismarck stops eventually
Catholic political party is formed

65

Social democratic political parties

1870's
Bernstein is head of one
try to meld together Darwinism and Marxism
wanted gradual reform

66

Bernstein

1870's
Head of social democratic political party
tried to merge Marxism and Darwinism
people from this party get elected to Parliament
push for social legislature, workers comp, etc.
Bismarck makes some concessions including a retirement age of 65

67

Louis 16th

1870's
French King during rev.
inherited broke France
hired Turgot, Necker, and Calonne
Calls estates general into session
they go against him and form constitution? tennis court oath
Killed by National convention

68

William 1st

1860's-1870's
becomes king of Prussia after Fredrick William 4th
wants to double the size of army
dissolved chamber of deputies after plans were dismissed
Bismarck is his ally
helps stop political stalemate

69

Ollivier

1860's
Appointed by Louis Napoleon as Prime Minister of France
was leader of opposition to Louis Napoleon
wanted France to be a republic
power passes to him when Louis dies

70

Paris Commune

1870's
revolution after the writing of the constitution forming 3rd rep.
doesn't have what sans-culottes want in it
supporters known as communar
paris starved out by thiers, many killed
revolution stops

71

The Great Exhibition

mid 1800's
sponsored by British gov.
World's fair
wanted to show off Industrial Rev.

72

Joseph Paxton

designed the Crystal Palace for the World's Fair
building like no other during the time
London in Hyde Park
Eventually destroyed by fire

73

Limited Liability Legislation

mid 1800's in England
liability limited to what you put in
encourages people to invest

74

Book of Household Management

written by Mrs. Isabella Beeton mid 1800's
helped newly middle class know proper etiquette