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Flashcards in What is pharmacology? Deck (16):
1

Pharmacology

The study of the effects of drugs on biological systems

2

Pharmacodynamics

Study of the molecular, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs on cellular/body systems and their mechanisms of action

3

Pharmacokinetics

Study of the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs

4

Pharmacogenomics

The study of genetic influences on the effectiveness and fate of drugs

5

Toxicology

The study of the adverse or toxic effects of drugs and other chemical agents

6

Where do drugs come from?

1.Plants
2. Microorganisms
3. Endogenous compounds
4. Modification of endogenous compounds
5. Synthetic chemicals

7

Give examples of extracts from plants and herbs and what are they used for?

Opium poppy- Morphine(pain killer)
Foxglove- digitalis(digoxin)- used to treat congestive heart failure

8

Give examples of drugs from microorganisms?

Penicillin(antibiotic), penicillin interferes with bacterial cell walls.

9

Give examples of endogenous compounds?

-Insulin(to treat diabetes)
-Thyroxine(treatment of thyroid insufficiency)
-Growth hormone(treatment of short stature)

10

Give examples of chemical modification of hormones/endogenous compounds?

Hormonal drugs:
-Ethinyl estradiol (readily absorbed form of oestrogen)
Anti-cancer drugs
-6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine- modified base components of DNA/RNA-interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis

11

Give examples of chemical synthesis?

-Indomethacin,celecoxib- COX inhibitors(NSAIDS)
-Cimetidine-histamine receptor modulator
-Simvastatin-HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

12

What are the names of drugs discovered by chance?

-Antidepressants= monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants
-Cisplatin-platinum containing drug used to treat a number of cancers.

13

What are generic names?

Related to the composition, structure, source of the drug. Preferred name for general use. Often have similar endings that give some insight into the class of drug eg celecoxib, rofecoxib, etoricoxib etc

14

What are brand names?

Drug company's name for the drug

15

What are the protein targets of drugs?

1. Receptors
2. Enzymes
3. Ion channels
4. Carrier molecules

16

What are the non-protein targets of drugs?

1.DNA and RNA
2.Lipids