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Flashcards in Wildlife control measures Deck (22):
1

Reasons for pest control

- damaged agricultural/horticultural crops
- damage to forestry nurseries and plantations
- damage to ecosystems that need to be conserved (flora and fauna)
- risk of predation of livestock and farmed fish
- risk of predation of game animals
- risk of predation of endangered wildlife
- risk of transmission of specific dz to livestock
- risk of zoonotic dz spreading to man
- damage to property
- consumption and contamination of stored feedstuffs
- risk of overpopulations (and emaciation) in the species

2

What is the major reservoir of alveolar hydatid disease (Echinococcus multilocularis)?

urban foxes

3

What is the major reservoir of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hantavirus)?

rats

4

What is the major reservoir of lass fever (Arenaviridae virus)?

mice

5

What are the 3 key components in wildlife control programs?

1. setting clearly define objectives
2. deciding how to achieve those objectives
3. monitoring the outcome of the plan
* goals should be transparent and defensible, even when outcomes are uncertain

6

List control strategies - damage control

- deterrents
- exclusion

7

List control strategies - pest control

- sustained destruction
- eradication

8

Give examples of deterrents

- noise emitters (bird scarer guns, ultrasound alarms(
- visual scarers (scarecrow)
- chemical repellents (copper acetate to repel sharks)
- habitat removal (roost removal around fruit farms)
- exclusion (electric fencing, vermin proof doorways)
- feed competition (encouraging competitors which are less of a pest, often not best method)

9

Give examples of pest control measures

- toxicants
- traps and snares
- introduced disease
- introduced predators
- hunting, shooting and fishing (bounties and recreational hunting)

10

How can the outcomes of wildlife control programs be monitored?

- kill rates (# removed in a given period)
- elimination rate (% removed in a given period)
- impact rate (improvement in the conserved resource, or change in pest population density)

11

What methods are used to measure kill rates/ elimination rate/ impact rate?

- catch rates
- scat density (i.e. faecal density)
- head counts/ plot occupancy
- feed removal/ activity at bait stations
- runway/ burrow opening counts
- impact assessment

12

What is the severity of welfare compromise (W)?

W = NIDC
- N = number of animals affected
- I = intensity of suffering
- D = duration of suffering
- C = capacity of animal to suffer

13

Give examples of toxicants

- 1080
- alpha chloralose
- ANTICOAGULANTS: brodifacoum, bromadiolone, pindone, racumin, warfarin
- bromethalin
- carbon monoxide
- chloropicrin
- cholecalciferol
- phosphorous
- potassium cyanide
- rotenone
- strychnine
- zinc phosphide
- DISCONTINUED: alpha napthylthiorurea, magnesium cyanide

14

What are concerns of ingested toxins?

MODE OF ACTION: intensity of suffering, duration of suffering
NON-TARGET POISONING
SECONDARY POISONING
SUB-LETHAL POISONING

15

Examples - live traps

- cage traps
- box traps
- nets
- pitfall traps
- leg snares
- leg-hold traps
- glue boards

16

Examples - kill traps

- neck-hold traps
- neck snares
- break-back traps
- body-catch traps
- crushing devices

17

Outline death from myxomatosis

- v unpleasant
- time to death 10-50d
- skin swellings after 4-5d
- conjunctival swellings 5-6d
- eyes can be completely closed at d7
- death from secondary infections (especially in lungs)

18

Outlline death from rabbit calicivirus

- liver damage with DIC
- death from a stroke or cardiac irregularities
- not all deaths are quick

19

Advantages - introduced predators

- low cost
- low effort

20

Disadvantage - introduced predators

- predator will take non-target species
- predator may become pest itself
- not always effective

21

Outline shooting and hunting for pest control

- bounties
- recreational hunting
- non-lethal injuries

22

Outline wildlife fertility control

- potential humane pest control method
- research over last >20y
- immunocontraception (GnRH, zona pellucida)
- vector and bait delivered
- promising in lab
- no example has been brought to market