Flashcards in WK 2- Child Nutrition Deck (20):
What is growth stunting
-stunting is low height for age
-moderate to severe stunting is below minus 2 standard deviations from median height for age of reference population
-rate of stunting in a country is a representation of that countries nutritional levels
-children who have a low nutritional intake in childhood are often shorter as adults
What are some of the effects of stunting
-traps people into a lifelong cycle of poor nutrition, illness, poverty and inequity.
-The damage to physical and cognitive development, especially during the first two years of a child’s life, is largely irreversible.
-A child’s poorer school performance results in future income reductions of up to 22 per cent on average.
-As adults, they are also at increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
What is wasting
low height for weight
-a strong predictor of mortality among children under five. It is usually the result of acute significant food shortage and/or disease
What is iodine deficiency
-lack of iodine in diet--> largest cause of preventable mental retardation
-causes cretinism, stillbirth and miscarriage, while even mild deficiency can significantly affect the learning ability of populations.
How can iodine deficiency be prevented
by ensuring that salt consumed by households is adequately iodized
What countries are most affected by iodine deficiency
South asia and sub-Saharan Africa have large amount of households who are not consuming adequately iodized salt
What are physical signs of iodine deficiency
goitre (swelling of thyroid gland) and cretinism (stunted physical and mental growth)
What does vitamin A deficiency cause
blindness (xeropthalmia) and renders children susceptible to common childhood killers: measles, diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia
-also helps prevent maternal mortality and may reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Who is at risk of vitamin D deficiency
•Babies of mothers with darker skin types, l
•living in high latitude
•Babies and mothers who wear concealing clothing,
•Babies and mothers who spend a lot of time indoors
-Populations who are forced to remain inside due to shelling or fighting are also at risk
-Populations living in desert areas where atmospheric dust acts as a filter for ultra-violet light are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency, particularly when people stay inside to avoid the heat of the day and wear extensive clothing.
•Babies of obese mothers (BMI >30).
What are the clinical signs of vitamin D deficiency
Rickets-> have reduced bone growth, are anaemic and prone to resp infection
-have delayed closire of the fontanelles
-squared head caused by swelling of frontal bone structure
-swollen wrists and ankles
Where is rickets most common
most Middle Eastern countries in a geographic band going from Morocco to Pakistan and can occur as far south as Ethiopia and is also common in parts of eastern Europe.
What happens to children who are undernourished in the first 2 years (1000 days)
-poor fetal growth and stunting that leads to irreversible damage-> such as shorter adult height, lower attained schooling, lower income and decreased offspring birthweight
-children will put on weight rapidly in childhood-> leads to high risk of chronic disease (like diabetes and stroke)
What are some causes of poor growth in children (organic)
-Inadequate intake –eg swallowing problem, cerebral palsy
-Malabsorption –eg cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease
-Excessive losses –eg diarrhoea, vomiting, protein loss in urine etc.
-Increased caloric requirement –chronic infection, Heart disease, etc
-Endocrine –eg Hypothyroidism
-Genetic –eg Turners Syndrome
-Fetal effects –IUGR, FASD
What are some causes of poor growth in children (non-organic)
food not available, money a problem, attachment problem, maternal depression, family violence, drug and alcohol use by carers or in household. child neglect. mental health problems in household.
-organic factors can be linked to non-organic factors (ie. Poor sanitation= diarrhoea, UTI)
How can malnutrition in children be prevented
Maternal nutrition and prevention of low birth weight
-Infant and young child feeding→ Breast feeding (1 hour of birth) and continued exclusive breast feeding for 6 months followed by continued feeding to 2 years.
-Complimentary feeding from 6 months
-Prevent micronutrient deficiency
-Prevent and treat acute severe acute malnutrition
-Sanitation and clean drinking water
-Healthy practices and use of health services.
What are the main causes of death in children globally
malnutrition, pneumonia, infection, prematurity, injuries, malaria
What is underweight measuring
weight for age
How many SD away from the mean score is 'moderate'
-2 to -3
How many SD away from the mean score is 'severe'