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Flashcards in World Cities Deck (88):
1

History of london docklands?

Were the busiest docks in the world, surrounded by high density low quality housing and industry

2

Decline of London docklands?

1950's- bigger ships couldn't fit
1970's- move from secondary to tertiary- globalisation- people moved out for employment
High unemployment
Poor hospitals and schools- cycle of deprivation

3

What and when was set up?

1981 LDDC
London docklands development corporation

4

Social task? Of LDDC

Create new housing, recreational and shopping facilities

5

Economic task? Of LDDC

Create new jobs and improve transport links

6

Environmental tasks? Of LDDC

Make use of derelict land
Planting trees
Green open space

7

Social impacts of regeneration?

22,000 new homes built
10,000 refurbished
Population doubled in 20 years following the development

8

New services of the development?

Several shopping malls
Post 16 college
University of East London campus
Leisure facilities: water sports arena
National indoor sports centre

9

Economic improvements?

No. Jobs tripled in 20 years
Many new firms- Stock exchange, ITV Studios, newspaper offices

10

Transport improvements?

Docklands light railway links with city centre
Jubilee line underground extension
City airport
Many new roads- M11

11

Environmental improvements?

200,000 trees planted
130 hectares of gos

12

Negative effects of the development?

New jobs went to skilled new comers
Housing price increases
Breakdown of community
Prices in the area increased- restaurants, bars
More money spent on infrastructure less on services

13

What is the prediction of the percentage of people living in cities by 2020?

53%- United Nations prediction

14

What is the prediction for 2025?

Just two of the largest 10 metropolitan areas will be located in the developed world.

15

What is a megacity?

Population larger than 10 million

16

What is a millionaire city?

Population more than 1 million

17

Example of an agglomeration?

Tokyo which now includes the religion of Yokohama

18

Definition of a world city?

A World City is a city that is a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture, science information gathering and mass media

19

Give the Alpha ++ cities?

New Look, London

20

Give an Alpha + city?

Tokyo

21

Give an Alpha city?

Mumbai

22

What are 3 of the largest cities?

Mexico City
New York
Tokyo

23

What are the 4 characteristics of world cities?

Hubs of business, transport and trade
Production hubs
Political hubs
Migration hubs

24

How is London a transport hub?

London's Heathrow airport airport has the worlds largest international passenger traffic

25

Why is Tokyo a major hub trade?

Dominated global trade and consumer activity
Corporate headquarters for TNC's, industrial giants - BP
Stock exchange
Clear identifiers of personal wealth- no. Billionaires

26

Give an example of a production hub world city?

Hong Kong

27

Example of migration hubs?

Sydney and Melbourne
-regularly feature in the worlds top 10 cities offering the highest quality of life

28

Example of large city economies?

Londons GDP is greater than that of Sweden and Switzerland
London generates 40% of the UK's GDP

29

How do London and New York dominate

Economically- influence global interest rates and share prices
Culturally- "theatre capitals"

30

What are the upcoming world cities?

2025 Dehli's GDP will exceed that of Indonesia's and Belgium's in 2011

31

History of the urban balance?

1975- 6 of the largest metropolitan areas were located in EDC's. e.g. UK was the first country to reach 50% urban pop in 1861.

32

Present urban balance?

By 2025 2/10 largest metropolitan areas will be located in the developed world.

33

What is the rate of urban population growth?

2.3% annually in developing world
0.5% developed world

34

What are many cities in Africa and Asia experiencing?

Hyper-urbanisation
Their rates of growth exceed the cities ability to cope in terms of housing, employment and services

35

What is the main cause for growth in developing cities?

Rural- urban migration

36

Who came up with the Core and Periphery theory?

Wallerstein

37

Describe the core areas?

Dominate production, investment and decision making. Profits are concentrated in these regions leading to higher incomes and capital investment.
Turn raw materials into profit

38

Describe the multiplier effect?

Investment in an area
Creates jobs and industry
This requires a workforce
The workforce need houses and services
More workers to build and provide these
Higher demand for shops and more services

39

Describe peripheral areas?

Lack resources, lack wealth, high inequalities
Often supply raw materials
People here are drafted in as cheap labour in mines or on plantations
On low wages, rely on remittance payments from core

40

Background info on Mumbai?

Heart of India's growing economy
Located on the western coast, lies within the richest state

41

Population and migration figures on Mumbai?

Population of over 20 million people.
Approx receives 1000 migrants a day.
By 2025 over 26 million population
Could become largest city by 2050

42

What is the problem with investment in Mumbai?

Low corporate tax- to attract companies
Low wages
Low income tax- vast inequality
City has low revenue- little public spending on health, housing and services

43

Which sectors have grown Mumbai?

Services
Manufacturing
Construction
Entertainment
Tourism

44

Examples of jobs in Mumbai?

BT- call centres- who outsource English speaking University graduates in Mumbai. Low wage on average $5000 a year
Has the worlds largest film industry- Bollywood
Half of Mumbai's factory workers in the textile industry

45

Impacts of Mumbai's wealth?

Provides 33% of India's tax revenue
40% of India's international flights land there
Property demand has pushed rents higher than those in London or New York

46

Negative effects in Mumbai?

Expensive rents lead to cramped housing
60% of Mumbai's population in slums
Long and overcrowded commutes
High inequalities between the emerging middles class and poverty

47

What is the name of the slum in Mumbai?

Dharavi

48

Background info on Dharavi?

One million population
One of the worlds largest slums
Average income- £40 month
Average rent- £12 month

49

Work in Dharavi?

Informal sector- irregular, little security- e.g. street trading
"Cottage industry" e.g.- A family making shirts
Recycling industry employs 10,000 including children

50

What are Mumbai's aims?

Vision Mumbai
To create over a million affordable homes
To reduce slum populations
To improve safety, pollution, education and healthcare

51

Suburbanisation case study?

LA, California

52

How did LA develop?

Transport
Employment
Image

53

Transport in LA?

Arrival of the transcontinental railway in 1876. Half a million people arrived within 40 years.
The LAX airport in 2010 was the 6th busiest airport in the world

54

What employment is there in LA?

Early 20th century:
Oil discovery
Ford car plane
Large Aircraft industry- civil and military test sites and production

55

What is the LA image?

Film industry- Hollywood
Theme parks- Disneyland and Universal

56

Fact about LA growth?

In the 70's was USA's fastest growing city

57

What facilitates suburbanisation in LA?

Electric tramways in the 20's
Freeways- pre 1980's petrol was cheap
Few planning restrictions- huge land mass

58

Background info to Counter- Urbanisation

St Ives- Cambridgeshire
100km North London
Just off A14 and East coast railway

59

Pull factors to St Ives?

15th Century Georgian and Victorian housing
Lots of Greenland
Affordable housing
variety of housing
Good accessibility
Plenty of space
Historical and picturesque

60

Commuting from St Ives?

25% of St Ives pop commute into London daily
Station of Huntington to Kings Cross is 50 minutes
Annual train pass is just under £4,000

61

Define gentrification?

Renewal of a deteriorated neighbourhood by new residents who are wealthier than locals. It is small scale and done by individuals.

62

House prices in Islington?

Doubled in 12 years
Average- 580,000
Residents would need to earn 90,000 to afford rent

63

When did gentrification begin in Islington?

1970's middle class earners- occupied Georgian town houses

64

Problems caused by commuting?

Stress caused by travel
Little time for social gathering
Creation of dormitory settlements

65

Car ownership and public transport in LA?

10 million car ownership
Just over 10% of commuters use public transport- 2005- 40% London

66

Describe urban smog?

Layers of warm and cool air trap smog and concentrated pollutants in cities atmosphere- can lead to asthma

67

Causes of donut cities?

Car and aircraft factories closed
Businesses followed people to the suburbs- malls
Industries that remained wanted larger sites

68

What was LA named?

The city that turned itself inside out

69

What were edge cities?

Increasingly large suburbs which developed along freeways. Self contained and cut off from central LA.

70

Example of an Edge city?

Anaheim- 2 hours to central LA by bus

71

Statistics on London and Waste?

London needs an area 125 times its own surface area to supply the resources it consumes. In 2010 management of London's rubbish cost £600m

72

Examples of inputs London has?

6.9 million tonnes of food- 81% outside the U.K.
Less than 1% of energy used in London is renewable
The best seller of water is sourced at the French alps

73

Outputs of londons waste?

Just under 50 million tonnes of CO2
53% recycled or reused

74

What is the issue with recycling?

Paper and plastics are sent to other countries.
Paper- Malaysia, Indonesia, China and India

75

Why is recycling bad in London?

80% of waste could be recycled
Many flats/ apartments do not have recycling facilities

76

For landfills?

Makes use of old quarries
Easily managed and safe

77

Against landfills?

Attracts birds and pests
Use of space
Generates traffic
Air pollution
Waste can seep into soil and contaminate
Loose material blows around

78

For incineration?

Cost effective
Safe disposal of toxic substances
Can generate energy from burning waste
Ability to reclaim metals such as aluminium

79

Against incineration?

Releases toxic gases
Particulates can enter food chains
CO2 is emitted

80

Merryhill info?

Developed in 1980's- enterprise zone- former steelworks
Parking for 10,000- M5
185 shops, 21 million annual visitors with 3 million catchment
4000 jobs

81

Curitiba background info?

South East Brazil
99% of residents happy
Population of 2 million
Was suffering of effects of rapid urbanisation

82

Curitiba transport system?

5 main roads in and out of the city- bus lanes separate
Busses consisted of 3 carriages
Simple colour scheme
Boarding tube- with ticket machines
Wide bus doors

83

Effectivity of buses?

Arrive every minute
Over 1000 passengers everyday
Can move more people that a subway but is cheaper
Low pollution

84

Other positives in Curitiba?

Parks to interconnect the city- also flood management
Recycle 2/3 of waste- children's library from recycled paper
Slum dwellers are paid by council to collect rubbish from inaccessible areas

85

Quote from Curitiba Mayor?

Jamie Learner
"Mobility, sustainability and identity"

86

Why did the bull ring fail?

Poor architecture- boxy concrete design
Deterred retailers due to high rents
Isolated from ring roads
Disliked by public due to Birmingham "concrete jungle" image

87

New bull ring?

Over 250,000 on first day of opening
36.5 million in first year- most visited outside of London
Total cost- £350 million
160 shops

88

Facts on Selfridges?

Cost 60 million
Has won 8 awards for architecture and retail services