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1

4 films

lateral
nasium
base posterior
APOM

2

lines on lateral film

occipital condylar line
atlas plane line
listing line

3

atlas plane line on lateral film goes though

dot on thin part of posterior arch of atlas
dot on anterior tubercle - close to anterior arch
-draw line through these 2 dots

4

LL on lateral film

parallel to OCL down to dot on posterior arch

5

finding on lateral film

AS or AI

- measured by angle btwn APL and LL; if APL> LL than 4 degrees, AS

6

if APL > LL by MORE than 4 degrees

subtract 4 from measured angle
AS

7

if APL > LL by LESS than 4 degrees

4- measured angle
AI

8

If LL > APL

add 4 degrees to measured angle
AI

9

if APL and listing line are the same, it is

AI4

10

lines on nasium film

ocular orbital line
superior basic line
inferior basic line
vertical median line

11

superior basic line is drawn on nasium film by

- dot both medial-inferior tips of condyles
- parallel to OOL down to first condyle; draw line

12

inferior basic line on nasium view

line through the lateral inferior tips of atlas lateral mass

13

+ sign on nasium view

horizontal part- draw line btwn 2 condyle tips
set compass to width of condyle tips, draw arc above and below
vertical part- connect 2 arch

14

vertical median line on nasium view

perpendicular to OOL, draw line through center of + sign

15

finding on nasium view

atlas laterality
bigger # = side of anteriority

16

70% rule for nasium view

side of convergence btwn SBL and IBL is side of laterality

17

lines on base posterior

atlas plane line
perpendicular skull line

18

atlas plane line on base posterior

through traverse processes

19

perpendicular skull line on base posterior

- dot middle of nasal septum
- dot like points on ocular orbital; parallel down to basilar process and make 2 dots -- draw horizontal line for + sign
- arch set to width of basilar process; make arch about and below
- draw line connecting arches for vertical line of + sign

20

finding on base posterior film

if angle > 90degrees, side of posterior rotation
if angle > 90 degrees, side of anterior rotation

21

lines on APOM

ocular orbital line
superior basic line
inferior basic line
vertical median line

22

superior basic line on APOM

dot on jugular process on both sides, draw line through these

(will NOT be perpendicular to OOL)

23

inferior basic line on APOM

dots on lateral-inferior tips of atlas lateral mass; draw line through

24

vertical median line

construct + sign using condylar tips
line perpendicular to OOL and straight line through center

25

2 reference points on APOM film

center of odontoid process - BASE
spinous prcess

26

finding on APOM

axis listing
ex. spinous left body pivot, entire segment left

27

for axis listing for spinous component

compare spinous process dot to base of odontoid dot --> gives spinous right/left body pivot

28

entire segment component

compare top dot to VML

29

*major component

compare spinous dot - odontoid dot and odontoid dot - VML dot and see which is more significant

30

assumed atlas listing is found on ____ and is done by:

APOM
measure laterality along IBL with VML to get side of laterality; then look for convergence btwn SBL and IBL to get rotation