XV - The Oral Cavity and the GI Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XV - The Oral Cavity and the GI Tract Deck (224)
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151

Most frequent site of ectopic gastric mucosa

Upper third of esophagus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 750

152

Aganglionic segment of the colon presents with distention or contracted appearance?

Grossly normal or contracted appearance. Normal proximal colon-dilated. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 752

153

Dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, aspiration, and halitosis strongly suggest diagnosis of ______.

Zenker diverticulum (TOPNOTCH)

154

It is characterized by the triad of incomplete LES relaxation, increased LES tone, and aperistalsis of the esophagus

Achalasia(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p.753

155

Patient presented with dysphagia for both solid and liquid, difficulty in belching, and chest pain. The esophageal obstruction is most likely caused by?

Impaired smooth muscle relaxation of LES (Case of Achalasia) (TOPNOTCH)

156

It is the result of distal esophageal inhibitory neuronal/ganglion cell degeneration.

Primary achalasia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 753

157

Characterized by transmural tearing and rupture of the distal esophagus. Patients present with severe chest pain, tachypnea and shock.

Boerhaave syndrome. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 754

158

Most frequent cause of esophagitis

Reflux of gastric contents in the lower esophagus. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 755

159

Most common cause of gastroesophageal reflux

Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 755

160

Severe form of this condition may have histologic finding of eosinophils recruited into the squamous mucosa followed by neutrophils. Basal zone hyperplasia and elongation of lamina propria papillae of the esophagus may be present.

GERD (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 755

161

Barrett esophagus confers an increased risk of what cancer?

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 757

162

A 55 y/o patient with a chronic history of heartburn and acid regurgitation underwent EGD, and revealed patches of red, velvety mucosa with interface of light-brown columnar epithelium with goblet cells. He is at risk for developing___.

Esophageal adenocarcinoma. This is a case of Barret esophagus. (TOPNOTCH)

163

Patient presented with odynophagia, dysphagia, progressive weight loss, chest pain and vomiting. A 5 cm mass was noted at the distal 3rd of the esophagus, which ulcerate and invade deeply. The most likely diagnosis is

Esophageal adenocarcinoma. It usually occurs in the distal 3rd of esophagus. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 758

164

Most common site of volvulus

Sigmoid colon(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 778

165

Most common cause of intestinal obstruction in children younger than 2 years of age

Intussusception(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 778

166

Presents with sudden onset of cramping, left lower abdominal pain, a desire to defecate, and passage of blood or bloody diarrhea.

Acute colonic ischemia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 780

167

Most common acquired GI emergency of neonates, particularly those who are premature or of low birth weight.

Necrotizing enterocolitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 780

168

Immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by ingestion of gluten-containing food in genetically predisposed individual

Celiac disease/Celiac sprue/Gluten-sensitive enteropathy(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 782

169

Most sensitive test for Celiac sprue

IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 783

170

Most common bacterial enteric pathogen; an important cause of traveler's diarrhea

Campylobacter jejuni(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 786

171

Watery diarrhea associated with ingestion of improperly cooked chicken, unpasteurized milk or contaminated water. It is an important bacterial cause of food poisoning.

Campylobacter enterocolitis(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 786

172

Diagnosis of Campylobacter enterocolitis, stool culture or biopsy?

Stool culture(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 787

173

Presents with 1 week of diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain, constitutional symptoms for about 1 month. May also present with waxing and waning diarrhea. Caused by gram-negative, facultative anaerobe.

Shigellosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 787

174

Complications of Shigella infection(Triad)

Sterile reactive arthritis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis.(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 788

175

Infection by a gram-negative bacilli causing diarrhea, common in young children and older adults by ingestion of contaminated food, particularly raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and milk.

Salmonella(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 789

176

Patients with sickle cell disease are particularly susceptible to osteomyelitis caused by:

Salmonella(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 789

177

The principal cause of traveler's diarrhea

Enterotoxigenic E. Coli(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 790

178

Mechanism of diarrhea in this infection : adenylate cyclase activation, increase intracellular cAMP, opens CFTR to drive chloride secretion and diarrhea.

Cholera(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 785

179

Most common etiologic agent causing pseudomembranous colitis/antibiotic-associated colitis.

Clostridium difficile(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 791

180

Most frequent complication of Peptic ulcer disease

Bleeding(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Ed p. 768