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Flashcards in XXII - The Skin Deck (58):
1

This term is the accumulation of edema fluid within the epidermis. Characterizes all forms of eczamatous dermatitis.

Spongiosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 839

2

An uncommon, usually self-limited disorder that seems to be a hypersensitivity response to certain infections and drugs. Patients present with an array of "multiform" lesions, including macules, papules, vesicles, and bullae, as well as the characteristic targetoid lesion consisting of a red macule or papule with a pale vesicular or eroded center.

Erythema Multiforme (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 840

3

In this skin disorder, there is marked epidermal thickening (acanthosis), and loss of the stratum granulosum with extensive overlying parakeratotic scale. The most typical lesion is a well-demarcated, pink to salmon-colored plaque covered by loosely adherent silver-white scale.

Psoriasis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

4

This sign is described as bleeding upon removal of scales from the lesions of psoriasis.

Auspitz sign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

5

Small aggregates of neutrophils within the parakeratotic stratum corneum in psoriasis.

Munro microabscesses(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

6

Small aggregates of neutrophils within the spongiotic superficial epidermis in psoriasis.

Pustules of Kogoj(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

7

Layer of the skin which is affected in psoriasis.

S. granulosum(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

8

"Pruritic, purple, polygonal, planar papules, and plaques" describes this disorder of the skin and mucosa. The pattern of inflammation of this disorder is characterized by angulated, zigzag contour ("sawtoothing") of the dermoepidermal junction.

Lichen Planus (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

9

Anucleate, necrotic basal cells seen in the inflamed papillary dermis of patients with lichen planus are called?

Colloid bodies or Civatte bodies(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 841

10

Presents as roughening of the skin that takes on an appearance reminiscent of "lichen on a tree". It is a response to local repetitive trauma such as continual rubbing or scratching.

Lichen Simplex Chronicus (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 842

11

Common lesions of children and adolescents, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Histologic features include epidermal hyperplasia that is often undulant in character, and cytoplasmic vacuolization (koilocytosis).

Verrucae (warts)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 843

12

The most common type of wart. Occurs anywhere but are found most frequently on the hands, particularly on the dorsal surfaces and periungual areas, where they appear as gray-white to tan, flat to convex, 0.1- to 1-cm papules with a rough, pebble-like surface.

Verruca vulgaris(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 844

13

These warts are common on the face or dorsal surfaces of the hands. These warts are flat, smooth, tan macules.

Verruca plana/flat wart(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 844

14

These warts occur on the soles and palms. Described as rough, scaly lesions that may reach 1 to 2 cm in diameter, coalesce, and be confused with ordinary calluses.

Verruca plantaris and verruca palmaris(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 844

15

These warts occurs on the penis, female genitalia, urethra, and perianal areas.

Condyloma acuminatum (venereal wart) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 844

16

A rare autoimmune blistering disorder resulting from loss of integrity of normal intercellular attachments within the epidermis and mucosal epithelium. Caused by a type II hypersensitivity reaction

Pemphigus (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 845

17

Common histologic denominator in all forms of pemphigus, described as the lysis of the intercellular adhesion sites.

Acantholysis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 845

18

In this variant of pemphigus, acantholysis selectively involves the layer of cells immediately above the basal cell layer, giving rise to a suprabasal acantholytic blister. There is uniform deposition of immunoglobulin and complement along the cell membranes of keratinocytes, producing a characteristic "fishnet" appearance.

Pemphigus vulgaris(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 845

19

In this variant of pemphigus, acantholysis selectively involves the superficial epidermis at the level of the stratum granulosum.

Pemphigus foliaceus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 845

20

An autoimmune disease in which the characteristic finding is linear deposition of IgG antibodies and complement in the basement membrane zone. Characterized by a subepidermal, nonacantholytic full-thickness epidermal fluid-filled blister.

Bullous pemphigoid (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 846

21

A rare disorder characterized by urticaria and grouped vesicles. Fibrin and neutrophils accumulate selectively at the tips of dermal papillae, forming small microabscesses, which coalesce to form a subepidermal blister. On immunofluorescence, granular deposits of IgA are localized at the tips of dermal papillae.

Dermatitis herpetiformis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 846

22

These common epidermal tumors occur most frequently in middle-aged or older individuals. The lesions consist of an orderly proliferation of uniform, benign basaloid keratinocytes with a tendency to form keratin microcysts (horn cysts), which has a "stuck-on" appearance on the skin.

Seborrheic keratosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 849

23

These are rare tumors that primarily occur in the head and neck region of older individuals. They usually present as flesh-colored papules and can be a marker for an internal malignancy.

Sebaceous Adenoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 849

24

These lesion is usually the result of chronic exposure to sunlight and is associated with hyperkeratosis. The dermis contains thickened, blue-gray elastic fibers or "solar elastosis" which is the result of chronic sun damage.

Actinic keratoses(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 850

25

Acronym for remembering the histologic features of actinic keratoses.

"Sunny" SPAINS - solar elastoses (dermal sun damage)P - parakeratosisA - atypia (keratinocytic)I - inflammationN - not full thickness atypia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 850

26

A common tumor arising on sun-exposed sites in older people, with higher incidence in women. Arise from prior actinic keratoses. Characterized by highly anaplastic, rounded cells with foci of necrosis and only abortive, single-cell keratinization (dyskeratosis).

Squamous cell carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 851

27

This is the most common human cancer, which is a slow-growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. tends to occur at sites subject to chronic sun exposure and in lightly pigmented people. h

Basal cell carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 852

28

These tumors present as pearly, smooth-surfaced papules, often containing prominent, dilated subepidermal blood vessels (telangiectasia). The cells have scant cytoplasm, small hyperchromatic nuclei, and a peripheral palisade with clefting from the stroma.

Basal cell carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 852

29

This refers to any benign congenital or acquired neoplasm of melanocytes.

Melanocytic nevus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 853

30

These are large nevi and may occur as hundreds of lesions on the body surface. They are flat macules to slightly raised plaques, with a "pebbly" surface. Considered as a marker of melanoma risk.

Dysplastic nevi(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 854

31

This cancer of the skin may develop from a dysplastic nevus, and results from excessive sun exposure. Malignant cells have large nuclei with irregular contours having chromatin characteristically clumped at the periphery of the nuclear membrane and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli often described as "cherry red". Has both radial and vertical growth phases.

Melanoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 855

32

This determines the biologic behavior of melanomas.

Nature and extent of the vertical growth phase (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 857

33

What is the most common type of all autoimmune blistering disordering of the skin (pemphigus)?

Pemphigus Vulgaris(TOPNOTCH)

34

Histologically, what is the most common denominator in all forms of pemphigus?

Acantholysis (TOPNOTCH)

35

Morphology: Subepidermal nonacantholytic blisters

Bullous Pemphigoid (TOPNOTCH)

36

Morphology: Suprabasal acantholytic blister

Pemphigus Vulgaris (TOPNOTCH)

37

Morphology: Characteristically, fibrin and neutrophils accumulate selectively at the tips of the dermal papillae forming small microabscesses

Dermatitis Herpetiformis (Seen in Celiac Disease) (TOPNOTCH)

38

Morphology: accumulation of neutrophils beneath the stratum corneum

Impetigo (TOPNOTCH)

39

Munro microabscesses is classically seen in?

Psoriasis (TOPNOTCH)

40

Auspitz sign is associated with what condition?

Psoriasis (TOPNOTCH)

41

Pearly papules often containing prominent, dilated subepidermal blood vessels (telangiectasias)

Basal Cell Carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

42

What is the most commonly accepted exogenous cause of squamous cel carcinoma of the skin?

Exposure to UV light (TOPNOTCH)

43

Cutaneous horns are seen in what condition?

Actinic Keratosis (TOPNOTCH)

44

What factor is the most important in the determining the biological behavior of malignant melanoma? Vertical or Radial growth?

Vertical growth (TOPNOTCH)

45

Morphology: characterized by loss of melanocytes

Albinism (TOPNOTCH)

46

In albinism, melanocytes are present but melanin pigment is not produced due to what enzyme deficiency or defect?

Tyrosinase (TOPNOTCH)

47

Q: + for melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase or Melan-A or S

Vitiligo (TOPNOTCH)

48

The early developmental stage in melanocytic nevi is called?

Junctional nevi (TOPNOTCH)

49

Most junctional nevi grow into the underlying dermis as nests or cords of cells and are calle

compound nevi (TOPNOTCH)

50

When all the epidermal nests of compound nevi are lost entirely they form what

intradermal nevi (TOPNOTCH)

51

Appears to play an important role in the development of skin malignant melanoma

Sunlight (TOPNOTCH)

52

What are the 5 clinical warning signs of melanoma?

1. enlargement of a pre-existing mle2. itching or pain in pre-existing mole3. development of a new pigment lesion during adult life4. irregularity of the borders of a pigment lesion5. variegation of color within a pigmented lesion (TOPNOTCH)

53

Morphology: proliferations of basaloid cells with formation of prominent keratin filled "horn" cysts

Seborrheic keratosis (TOPNOTCH)

54

Appears clinically as flesh-colored, dome shaped nodules with central, keratin filled plug, imparting a crater like topography

Keratoacanthoma (TOPNOTCH)

55

Morphology: Central, keratin filled crater surrounded by proliferating epitheal cells that extend upward in a lip-like fashion over the sides of the crater and downward into the dermis as irregular tongues

keratoacanthoma (TOPNOTCH)

56

The most important clinical sign of malignant melanoma

change in color, size, or shape in a pigmented lesion (TOPNOTCH)

57

In Malignant Melanoma, what type of growth indicated the tendency of a melanoma to grow horizontally within the epidermal and superficial dermal layers, often for a prolonged period of time?

Radial growth (TOPNOTCH)

58

In Malignant Melanoma, what are the determinants of a more favorable prognosis?

1. Tumor depth of less than 1.7 mm2. Absence or low numbers of mitoses3. Presence of a brisk TIL response (Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes)4. Absence of regression 5. Female gender6. Location on extremity skin (TOPNOTCH)