Year 3 Flashcards Preview

FoPC > Year 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Year 3 Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the two most common causes of death?

Cancer and IHD

2

What is the name of the national action plan in Scotland for palliative care?

'Living and Dying Well'

3

How do you know if a patient is at a palliative stage? (What tool is used?)

'Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool'

4

What is the overall goal of palliative care?

Emphasise quality of life

5

What should be considered when thinking about a patient's palliative care and what they want?

Where do they want to be cared for?
Do they want resuscitation?
Who do they want informed of their care and changes in their condition?
Are they/their family fully aware of their prognosis?

6

Who is the palliative care team made up of?

Health and Social Care partnership
+ MacMillan nurses, CLAN, Marie Curie nurses
Religious groups

7

What might be considered 'A Good Death'?

Pain-free
Acknowledgement of its imminence
At home with family and friends
No personal conflicts or unfinished business
In a manner that resonates with person's individuality

8

What are possible different reactions to bad news?

Shock
Anger
Denial
Bargaining
Relief
Sadness
Fear
Guilt
Anxiety
Distress

9

How is a patient's current functional level in palliative care measured?

'Palliative Performance Scale'
- has prognostic value

10

What are the social/socio-economic influences on our health?

Gender
Ethnicity
Housing
Education
Employment
Financial security
Health system
Environment

11

How does the WHO define 'Health Inequality'? What is the key determinant factor?

Differences in health status or in distribution of health determinants between different population groups

Deprivation is the key factor

12

What might you expect to see in the general health of children from deprived areas?

Low birth weight
Poorer dental health
Higher obesity
Higher rates of teenage pregnancy

13

What are some examples of 'vulnerable groups'?

The homeless
Those with learning difficulties
Refugees
Prisoners
LGBT

14

What health challenges do the homeless face?

- Average age of death ~45
- Unnatural causes of death 4x more likely
- Suicide 35x
- Alcohol/drug problems increased
- Increased prevalence of infectious diseases
- Poorer oral health
- Decreased access to healthcare

15

What health challenges do those with learning difficulties face?

- Staff having poor understanding
- If learning disability hasn't been formally identified
- Failure to recognise when those with learning difficulties are unwell
- Inadequate aftercare/follow-up
- Lack of joint working from different healthcare professionals
- Anxiety/lack of confidence

16

What health challenges do refugees face?

- Family integrity and social adjustments larger than medical issues
- Competing demands of distinct services such as social welfare, housing, education, transport, public health, mental health, primary care, specialty care
- Language barriers
- Previous poorly controlled chronic conditions
- exposure to violence/warfare
- prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety

17

What health challenges do prisoners face?

- High levels of alcohol use
- higher levels of smokers
- Less interest in socialising
- more drug use

18

What health challenges do LGBT face?

- Higher rates of depression - increased self-harm

19

What is the 'Inverse Care Law'?

1971 - Julian Tudor Hart

'Those who most need medical care are least likely to receive it, and conversely those with least need of health care tend to use health services more and more effectively

20

What range of factors can reduce health inequalities?

- Effective partnership across a range of sectors and organisations e.g. to promote health, improve patient education about health
- Evaluate and refine integration of health and social care
- Government policies and legislation e.g. smoking ban, Keep Well campaign
- Time to invest in the more vulnerable patient groups
- Improve access to health and social care services and professionals
- reduction in poverty
- social inclusion policies
- improved employment opportunities for all
- ensuring equal access to education in all areas
- improved housing in deprived areas

21

What is the difference between equity and equality?

Equality - everyone gets the same
Equity - everyone gets enough to bring everyone to the same level

22

What are the role of third sector organisations in health?

Provide a means of engaging effectively with communities and individuals
Deliver a range of services which may help to reduce health inequalities, including:
- promoting healthy living to groups of people who may not use mainstream services
- supporting people to access the relevant services of NHS Health Scotland

23

What are the benefits to individuals who volunteer?

Gain confidence
Make a difference
Meet people
Be part of a community
Learn new skills
Take on a challenge
Have fun

24

What factors may lead to global unsustainability? How might this affect healthcare?

Material inequality - rich getting richer
Population and consumption - growing
Resource depletion - oil, water
Climate change
Loss of biodiversity - animal depletion
Crisis in healthcare - ageing population

25

What is the definition of sustainability?

"The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level"

26

How is climate change expected to affect health and healthcare?

- Loss of healthy life years as a result of global
environmental damage is predicted to be 500x greater amongst poor Africans
- Half of world's population could face severe food shortages as rising temperatures affect crops
- Sea level rise could displace up to 1bn people

27

What actions may be taken to address climate change?

- Increase renewable energy sources
- modifying human behaviour to be more active
- plant-based diet
- educate on carbon
- promote patient resilience
- teach that we are part of an ecological system

28

How is sustainability relevant to the NHS?

Looked at in terms of environment and low carbon use
- or the NHS's ability to continue over time
- 'Realistic Medicine' relates to this

29

How does/can the NHS continue sustainability in terms of carbon/climate change?

- Prioritise environmental health
- Substitute harmful chemicals with safer alternatives
- Reduce and safely dispose of waste
- Improve travel strategies
- Purchase and serve sustainably grown food
- Safely manage and dispose of pharmaceuticals
- Adopt greener building design and construction
- Purchase safer, more sustainable, products

30

What are some examples of overall health issues that may result from climate change?

Malnutrition
Diarrhoea
Infectious diseases