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Flashcards in You and your genes Deck (102)
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1

Where in a body's cells are chromosomes found?

the nucleus

2

What are alleles?

each of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.

3

what is the difference between environmental effects and genetic effects on a human.

environmental is what changes a human during his or her lifetime. (e.g a tan) but genetic traits of a human are passed on by there parents (e.g naturally dark skin).

4

You only need one copy of the faulty allele to have Huntington's disease. This means the allele is...

dominant.

5

to be a male you have to have...

one Y chromozone and one X chromozone

6

To be a female you have to have...

Two X chromozones

7

which is more dominant. The X or Y chromozone?

The Y chromozone

8

A false negative means...

That the test shows that a person does not carry a certain allele when they do

9

what is asexual reproduction?

reproduction with only one parent

10

Non-specialised embryo cells are called...

stem cells

11

If a body cell taken from sheep A is fused with an egg cell from sheep B, and put into the host mother sheep C, the resulting lamb will be a clone of...

sheep A

12

Genes are found in our .....,which parents pass onto the ................... in their ..... ...... in reproduction. Different versions of the same ...... are called........

Genes are found in our chromosomes,which parents pass on to offspring in their sex cells in reproduction. Different versions of the same gene are called alleles.

13

what do alleles determine?

and these can determine features like eye colour, and the inheritance of disorders such as cystic fibrosis.

14

what are different versions of the same gene called

alleles

15

the nucleus controls the activities of a cell. The instructions for how an organism develops are found?

in the nuclei of its cell

16

Where are Chromosomes found?

Chromosomes are structures found in the nucleus of most cells.

17

What two types of proteins are there?

The proteins can either be:
1) structural proteins such as the ones found in muscles and hair
2) enzymes, such as proteases and other digestive enzymes.

18

Are Identical twins are genetically the same? They are example of the interaction between ………and…...….?

Identical twins are genetically the same. They are a good example of the interaction between inheritance and the environment.

19

what are the differences that you see between identical twins, for example, in personality, tastes and aptitude, due to ?

differences in their experiences or environment.(For example, an identical twin who takes regular exercise will have better muscle tone than one who does not exercise. All of the differences that you see between identical twins, for example, in personality, tastes and aptitude, are due to differences in their experiences or environment.)

20

When an egg and sperm cell come together, the now fertilised egg contains …...pairs of ….. Sex chromosomes are responsible for …....

When an egg and sperm cell come together, the now fertilised egg contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.

21

what is a Sex chromosomes are responsible for ?

Sex chromosomes are responsible for certain genetic traits.

22

what comes together to form a fertilised egg?

When an egg and sperm cell come together, the now fertilised egg contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are responsible for certain genetic traits.

23

Human body cells each contain ... pairs of chromosomes. Parents pass on their ….. to their offspring in their ….. cells.
female sex cells are called …………..male sex cells are called ……..

Human body cells each contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Parents pass on their genes to their offspring in their sex cells.
female sex cells are called egg cells, or ova
male sex cells are called sperm.

24

A pair of chromosomes carry the same ….. in the same place, on each …. within the pair.

A pair of chromosomes carry the same genes in the same place, on each chromosome within the pair.

25

the sex chromosomes are a pair. The …… sex chromosome is called the ... chromosome, the …. one the Y chromosome

The highlighted pair of chromosomes are called the sex chromosomes; they are a pair. The longer sex chromosome is called the X chromosome, the shorter one the Y chromosome.

26

The chromosomes in a pair carry the ….. ……. in the same places. But there are different versions of the same gene. Different versions of the same gene are called …. For example, the ….. for eye colour has an …… for blue eye colour and an ….. for brown. For any gene, a person may have the……….. …… ……….. or two different ones

The chromosomes in a pair carry the same genes in the same places. But there are different versions of the same gene.
Different versions of the same gene are called alleles (pronounced 'al-eels') For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown. For any gene, a person may have the same two alleles or two different ones

27

Alleles may be either…….. … ………...

Alleles may be either recessive or dominant.

28

A dominant allele always shows, even if the individual only has …. copy of it. For example, the …. for brown eyes is …. You only need one copy of it to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you ….. eyes.

A dominant allele always shows, even if the individual only has one copy of it. For example, the allele for brown eyes is dominant. You only need one copy of it to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you brown eyes.

29

AN individual can be called a ….. because, even though they have brown eyes, they still carry the….. for blues eyes and can pass this ….. on to future generations.

An individual can be is called a carrier because, even though they have brown eyes, they still carry the allele for blues eyes and can pass this allele on to future generations.

30

When describing an organism it is important to distinguish between the genotype and......

When describing an organism it is important to distinguish between the genotype and phenotype.