You already know a bunch of ways you can improve and optimize your brain health. You can exercise for better productivity, eat good brain foods, and make sure you can get enough sleep by beating insomnia. You can also keep your brain in shape with puzzles and even by learning a foreign language.
But what about chess?
It's popular around the world, and commonly associated with strategy and intelligence. But does chess make you smarter?
If you’re already a chess lover, the following article should make you feel awesome about your favorite game. If you’re not, this article might just motivate you to start. Here's 10 ways that chess can actually make you smarter.
1. Chess can raise your IQ
Chess has always had an image problem, being seen as a game for brainiacs and people with already high IQs. So there has been a bit of a chicken-and-egg situation: Do smart people gravitate towards chess, or does playing chess make them smart?
At least one study has shown that moving those knights and rooks around can in fact raise a person’s intelligence quotient. In a review of the educational benefits of chess, Robert Ferguson describes a study of 4,000 Venezuelan students produced significant rises in the IQ scores of both boys and girls after 4 months of chess instruction. Other research has corroborated these results of skill transfer.
2. It helps prevent Alzheimer’s disease
Because the brain works like a muscle, it needs exercise like any bicep or quad to be healthy and ward off injury. A review of a number of primary studies found
A study featured in The New England Journal of Medicine found that people over 75 who engage in brain-stretching activities like chess are less likely to develop dementia than their non-board-game-playing peers. Just like an un-exercised muscle loses strength, Dr. Robert Freidland, one of the study’s authors, found that unused brain tissue leads to a loss of brain power. So that’s all the more reason to play chess before you turn 75.
These results were corroborated by a big review that concluded chess is a protective factor against dementia.
3. It exercises both sides of the brain
In a German study, researchers showed chess experts and novices simple geometric shapes and chess positions and measured the subjects’ reactions in identifying them. They expected to find that the experts’ left brains were much more active, but they did not expect the right hemisphere of the brain to do so as well.
The results of the study suggested that novices and experts had similar reaction times to the simple shapes, but the experts were using both sides of their brains to more quickly respond to the chess position questions, whereas the novices weren't.
4. It increases your creativity
Since the right hemisphere of the brain is responsible for creativity, it should come as no surprise that activating the right side of your brain helps develop your creative side. Specifically, chess greatly increases originality.
One four-year study by Robert Ferguson had students from grades 7 to 9 play chess, use computers, or do other activities once a week for 32 weeks to see which activity fostered the most growth in creative thinking. The chess group scored higher in all measures of creativity, with originality being their biggest area of gain.
5. It improves your memory
Most serious chess players know—at least anecdotally—that playing chess improves your memory. Being a good player means remembering how your opponent has operated in the past and recalling moves that have helped you win before.
But there’s hard evidence to back up the anecdotal experience. In a two-year study in 1985, young students who were given regular opportunities to play chess improved their grades in all subjects, and their teachers noticed better memory and better organizational skills in the kids. A similar study of Pennsylvania sixth-graders found similar results. Even students who had never before played chess improved their memories and verbal skills after playing.
6. It increases problem-solving skills
A chess match is like one big puzzle that needs solving, and solving on the fly, because your opponent is constantly changing the parameters. Nearly 450 fifth-grade students were split into three groups in a 1992 study in New Brunswick. Group A was the control group and went through the traditional math curriculum. Group B supplemented the math with chess instruction after first grade, and Group C began the chess in first grade. On a standardized test, Group C’s grades went up to 81.2% from 62% and outpaced Group A by 21.46%.
7. It improves reading skills
In an oft-cited 1991 study, Dr. Stuart Margulies studied the reading performance of 53 elementary school students who participated in a chess program and evaluated them compared to non-chess-playing students in the district and around the country. He found definitive results that playing chess caused increased performance in reading. In a district where the average students tested below the national average, kids from the district who played the game tested above it.
8. It improves concentration
Chess masters might come off like scattered nutty professors, but the truth is their antics during games are usually the result of intense concentration that the game demands and improves in its players. Looking away or thinking about something else for even a moment can result in the loss of a match, as an opponent is not required to tell you how he moved if you didn’t pay attention. Numerous studies of students in the U.S., Russia, China, and elsewhere have shown time and again that young people’s ability to focus is sharpened with chess.
[Check out our huge guide for other ways to boost your focus.]
9. It grows neuron dendrites
Dendrites are the tree-like branches that conduct signals from other neural cells into the neurons they are attached to. Think of them like antennas picking up signals from other brain cells. The more antennas you have and the bigger they are, the more signals you’ll pick up.
Learning a new skill like chess-playing causes dendrites to grow. But that growth doesn’t stop once you’ve learned the game; interaction with people in challenging activities also fuels dendrite growth, and chess is a perfect example.
10. It teaches planning and foresight
Having teenagers play chess might just save their lives. It goes like this: one of the last parts of the brain to develop is the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for planning, judgment, and self-control. So adolescents are scientifically immature until this part develops.
Strategy games like chess can promote prefrontal cortex development and help them make better decisions in all areas of life, perhaps keeping them from making a stupid, risky choice of the kind associated with being a teenager.
Does chess make you smarter?
So, yah, there's some pretty good evidence to suggest that playing chess can develop your brain and improve your cognitive abilities. If you’re interested in other ways to improve your skillset, intelligence, and brain health, keep exploring the Brainscape Academy.
And if you're trying to boost intelligence to pass an exam or course, go study in Brainscape, an intelligent mobile and online flashcard app that can help your learn languages, science, mathematics, test prep, and many other subjects.
Best of luck in your chess tournament – and your lifelong quest to continue becoming smarter!
Bilalić, M., Langner, R., Erb, M., & Grodd, W. (2010). Mechanisms and neural basis of object and pattern recognition: a study with chess experts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(4), 728. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020756
Ferguson Jr., R. (2007). Chess in Education: Research Summary. A review of key chess research. http://uschesstrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/chess-in-education-research-summary-by-robert-ferguson.pdf
Jankovic, A., & Novak, I. (2019). Chess as a powerful educational tool for successful people. In 7th International OFEL Conference on Governance, Management and Entrepreneurship: Embracing Diversity in Organisations. April 5th-6th, 2019, Dubrovnik, Croatia (pp. 425-441). Zagreb: Governance Research and Development Centre (CIRU). https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/196101/1/ofel-2019-p425-441.pdf
Joseph, E., Easvaradoss, V., Kennedy, A., & Kezia, E. J. (2016). Chess training improves cognition in children. GSTF Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 1-6. doi: 10.5176/2345-7872_2.2_33
Lillo-Crespo, M., Forner-Ruiz, M., Riquelme-Galindo, J., Ruiz-Fernández, D., & García-Sanjuan, S. (2019). Chess Practice as a Protective Factor in Dementia. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(12), 2116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph16122116
Margulies, S. (1992). The effect of chess on reading scores: District nine chess program second year report. The American Chess Foundation, New York. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4b6d/f99da808d6e0e60a960c2e34b17e8679081e.pdf
Verghese, J., Lipton, R. B., Katz, M. J., Hall, C. B., Derby, C. A., Kuslansky, G., ... & Buschke, H. (2003). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(25), 2508-2516. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa022252