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History IGCSE (CIE) Gulf War > 01. Background > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01. Background Deck (20)
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1

What is the Persian Gulf?

The sea between Iran and the Arabian peninsula

2

Approximately what proportion of the world's known oil reserves are in the Gulf region?

Nearly two-thirds (2/3)

3

Why did these states effectively control the economic well-being of the industrialised nations?

Oil was critical to the economies of the industrialised nations

4

What sort of things was oil used for in the industrialised economies? (3)

- Transport
- Industry
- Domestic usage (cars etc.)

5

As a result of their dependency on oil, what did the industrialised nations seek in the Gulf?

They sought to promote peace and stability

6

Which nations/areas counted as 'industrialised' during this period?

Western Europe
America
Japan
South Africa
(and some others)

7

Why did events in the Gulf matter so much to industrialised nations?

They tended to cause economic and political crises in the oil-consuming countries

8

During this period, what sort of events were common in the Gulf region? (3)

- Wars
- Revolutions
- Regime changes

9

Who was the leader of Iran from 1979 onwards?

Ayatollah Khomeini

10

What is an ayatollah?

A high-ranking religious leader in Shiite Islam

11

Which religion do most people in the region follow?

Islam

12

What are the two main types of Muslims?

Shia and Sunni

13

How well do the two branches (Sunni and Shia) of Islam coexist?

Not well at all. The gap between the two branches of Islam is significant and has been a major source of conflict over the years.

14

What are the Gulf countries dependent on for their wealth?

Oil - many are almost entirely dependent on it for their wealth

15

Which nation near the Gulf region is a source of tension for all the Arab states?

Israel

16

When was Israel created?

1948 - three years after the end of WWII and the horrors of the Holocaust

17

Why were the Arab nations so hostile to the creation of Israel?

Various reasons, but one of which was the Jewish state was carved out of previously Arab land

18

Which two countries are key to understanding this period?

Iraq and Iran

19

Which of Iraq and Iran is the Arab state (e.g. a state on the Arab peninsula?)

Iraq

20

Who is the key Iraq leader during this period?

Saddam Hussein