02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.03 Describe Behavior and Private Events Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.03 Describe Behavior and Private Events Deck (21):
1

Which is NOT an explanatory fiction? A child becomes a great pianist because
he has great talent.
he practices.
his knowledge of music is reinforced by practice.
his practice has reinforced his abilities.

“Talent” is superfluous—it does not point to a controlling event independent of piano playing. However, a relationship could be evaluated between piano playing and practice.

2

Which is NOT a private event?
feeling the heat of 90 degree weather at a crowded amusement park
being alone and talking into a cell phone, not knowing that you've lost the signal
a very sick person saying to you, "I'm burning up inside."
feeling very ill

a very sick person saying to you, "I'm burning up inside."

3

A private event
could involve thinking (verbal behavior to oneself).
affects only one person.
could involve action of the muscles or glands.
(all of the others)

all others

4

A private event
includes only behavior within the skin.
may include verbal behavior to oneself (thinking).
affects only one person in addition to the speaker.
(all of the others)

It includes behavior within the skin and any other stimulation experienced only by one person, including verbal behavior to oneself (thinking).

A private event is anything that stimulates only one individual. It is usually something within the skin, but not always. A thought could be a private event that occasions the next thought. The sound of a tree falling in the woods is a private event to a lone person in the woods. (Catania, 1998, pp. 349, 403; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 537; Skinner, 1974, pp. 24-36)

5

Mentalism can be characterized as
pathology or mental illness as a cause of behavior.
feelings or states of mind as a cause of behavior.
contingencies of reinforcement as a cause of behavior.
(all of the others)

feelings or states of mind as a cause of behavior.

Mentalism is the attribution of behavior to the mind; to unobservable events. A mentalistic interpretation asserts that feelings, sensations, and states of mind cause behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Skinner, 1974, pp. 10-23)

6

One reason behavior analysis is a natural science is that
it employs statistical analysis.
its methods are consistent with the social sciences.
it employs a multidisciplinary approach.
it doesn't employ mentalism.

it doesn't employ mentalism.

7

With circular reasoning, the cause is determined
from information independent of the effect.
if the consequence for one behavior is the antecedent for the next behavior.
from the same information as the effect.
by evaluating the cause independent of the effect.


from the same information as the effect.

Circular reasoning occurs when a cause is determined from the same information as the effect. For example, a child's disrespect for others (cause) may be attributed to a bad attitude (effect). However, the bad attitude is only another description of the behavior. Attitude doesn't "cause" disrespect any more than disrespect "causes" attitude. Contrast this to, say, tantruming that is determined from a functional assessment is due to contingent attention. The cause (contingent attention) is determined by evaluating the environment contingencies-not the tantrum itself. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Michael, 1993, pp. 53-56)

8

Which is the correct way to talk about reinforcement?
Behavior occurs more often in the future due to the reinforcing consequence.
Behavior occurs more often in the future once the student figures out the reinforcement contingency.
Reinforcement works when the students want points.
Student knows that as

Behavior occurs more often in the future due to the reinforcing consequence.

"Knows," "wants, and "figures out" are explanatory fictions. For example, to say that somebody engages in a behavior because he "knows" he will get reinforced is an appeal to a cognitive process-an intermediary between the history of reinforcement and the behavior. A correct interpretation would be that he engages in the behavior due to his history of reinforcement; or the behavior is a function of his history of reinforcement (and presumably a state of deprivation). (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Michael, 1993, pp. 53-56)

9

Which is NOT a private event?
imagining a scene exactly like an author describes it
(all are private events)
feeling an itch
the pain from getting hit with a baseball

All above

10

Feelings
can be collateral products.
do not cause behavior.
can be explanatory fictions.
(all of the others)

All others

11

Although erroneous, mentalism is most like
both an antecedent and consequent analysis.
an antecedent analysis.
an analysis of establishing operations.
a consequent analysis.

an antecedent analysis.

Mentalism points to feelings, sensations, will, and other unobservable and immeasurable entities. These antecedent entities are given causal status (e.g., He felt hungry, therefore he ate. She felt sad, so she lashed out.) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Skinner, 1974, pp. 10-23)

12

Which is NOT a private event?
a muscle twitch in the leg when wearing baggy pants
whispering to oneself such that no one else can hear
(all are private events)
someone whispering in your ear so that only you and he could hear

someone whispering in your ear so that only you and he could hear

13

Feelings
can be explanatory verifications.
can be explanatory fictions.
do not exist.
(all of the others)

an explanatory fiction

An explanatory fiction (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Michael, 1993, pp. 53-56) is evident when a cause is another name for an effect. For example, "He cried because he felt sad." The sad feeling is simply other behavior-it is not a cause.

14

Which is NOT a private event?
a virus with no symptoms has infected a large part of the body
scratching your nose when no one is around
a virus that causes one to think weird thoughts
thinking, "I've got a great poker hand"

a virus with no symptoms has infected a large part of the body

A virus with no symptoms is neither a private nor public event. It is just a medical condition. An event must affect a receptor system to be one or the other. (Catania, 1998, pp. 349, 403; Skinner, 1974, pp. 24-36)

15

With regard to feelings, behavior analysts maintain that they
are behavior and just because they lie within the skin doesn't mean that they are not governed by the same operant contingencies that control overt behavior.
do not exist.
cause behavior.
do not cause behavior.

do not cause behavior.

Feelings do not cause behavior; rather, they are collateral products. For example, when exposed to certain stimuli, an organism might run away. One might be tempted to say that he ran because he "felt scared." However, he ran because that behavior has been adaptive in the presence of certain stimuli, thus helping to foster the survival of the species. The "feeling" is a collateral event only. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Skinner, 1974, p. 52)

16

A private event
is behavior that doesn't involve action of the muscles or glands.
is stimulation that is evident only to the behaver.
is behavior involving muscles or glands at a level undetectable to others.
is stimulation that occurs only within the skin of the behaver.

is stimulation that is evident only to the behaver.

17

Mentalism tends to
halt further inquiry into causal factors.
foster further inquiry into contributing consequent events.
bring about an excess of scientific inquiry.
foster inquiry into the variables that control a behavior.

halt further inquiry into causal factors.

18

Fido runs to the door when he hears the garage door open. Which is NOT an explanatory fiction?
Running to the door when the car has pulled up has reinforced the expectation of seeing his master.
Fido's running is controlled by the history of his expectation being reinforced by his master's entry.
Fido anticipates being reinforced by his master's entry.
Running to the door when the car has pulled up has been reinforced by seeing his master.

a relationship could be evaluated between car arrival and running to the door.

19

Mentalism
is supposedly an antecedent analysis.
is feelings or states of mind as a cause of behavior.
tends to halt further inquiry into causal factors.
(all of the others)

all others

20

Which is NOT a private event?
getting hit with a baseball
feeling nauseous, though others could see a pained expression on your face
feeling hungry, though others know you haven't eaten all day
(all are private events)

getting hit with a baseball

21

Which is NOT a private event?
someone whispering to himself so that only he could hear it
imagining a scene exactly like an author describes it
a tickling sensation from someone blowing in your ear
(all are private events)

all are private

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