02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.08 Internal Validity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.08 Internal Validity Deck (16):
1

Data are characterized by cycles (highs and lows). This is a threat due to
history.
excessive experimental control.
instability.
natural (or lawful) variation.

instability.


MATURATION: changes within the individual that occur during the experiment
SETTING CONFOUNDS: uncontrolled aspects of the natural environment
TESTING: repeated testing
PROCEDURAL (TREATMENT) INTEGRITY: treatment not being implemented as planned; including procedural drift, which occurs when implementation of a procedure deteriorates over time
LOSS OF SUBJECTS: participants drop out (attrition)
MULTIPLE INTERVENTION INTERFERENCE: interaction of multiple treatments
INSTABILITY: variability in behavior
INTERVENING WHEN BEHAVIOR CHANGES: coincidence
INSTRUMENTATION: inaccurate measurement by devices or human observers
HISTORY: what goes on during an experiment that could affect the outcome.
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 232-237; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 91-93)

2

Treatment integrity refers to
the extent to which the treatment is implemented as planned.
human observers recording accurately.
employing the intervention with the most empirical support.
the extent to which the data reflect behavior of importance.

the extent to which the treatment is implemented as planned.


PROCEDURAL (TREATMENT) INTEGRITY: treatment not being implemented as planned; including procedural drift, which occurs when implementation of a procedure deteriorates over time

3

Attrition as a threat to internal validity refers to
participants not accepting the purpose of the experiment.
(none of the others)
loss of participants.
participant data being discarded due to unacceptable behavior.

LOSS OF SUBJECTS: participants drop out (attrition)

4

A token procedure is initially implemented properly, but after a while, the teacher implements the procedure inconsistently. This exemplifies
procedural drift.
setting confound.
(none of the others)
instrumentation error.

procedural drift

Procedural (or treatment) drift occurs when treatment integrity gradually deteriorates. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 235; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 91-93)

5

An intervention for acting out behavior is implemented just as a new student joins the class. This is a threat due to
history.
multiple intervention interference.
instrumentation.
(all of the others)

history

MATURATION: changes within the individual that occur during the experiment
SETTING CONFOUNDS: uncontrolled aspects of the natural environment
TESTING: repeated testing
PROCEDURAL (TREATMENT) INTEGRITY: treatment not being implemented as planned; including procedural drift, which occurs when implementation of a procedure deteriorates over time
LOSS OF SUBJECTS: participants drop out (attrition)
MULTIPLE INTERVENTION INTERFERENCE: interaction of multiple treatments
INSTABILITY: variability in behavior
INTERVENING WHEN BEHAVIOR CHANGES: coincidence
INSTRUMENTATION: inaccurate measurement by devices or human observers
HISTORY: what goes on during an experiment that could affect the outcome.

6

Multiple intervention (i.e., multiple treatment) interference is a threat to internal validity due to
participant interactions.
multiple baseline design across interventions.
repeated testing.
interactive effects.

interactive effects.

MULTIPLE INTERVENTION INTERFERENCE: interaction of multiple treatments

7

An inaccurate clock exemplifies which threat to validity?
instrumentation
history
reliability
maturation


instrumentation
INSTRUMENTATION: inaccurate measurement by devices or human observers

8

An experiment has 3 participants. One drops out. This is a threat to internal validity due to
loss of data.
loss of interest.
attrition.
instability.

LOSS OF SUBJECTS: participants drop out (attrition)

9

Changing the teacher in the middle of a skills acquisition experiment threatens internal validity due to
testing.
maturation.
multiple intervention interference.
history.

History

History has to do with what goes on during an experiment that could affect the outcome. (Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 91-93)

10

Testing as a threat to internal validity refers to
(none of the others)
the influence of training on test results.
results from standardized tests being of little value.
the influence of repeated testing.

TESTING: repeated testing

11

Data recorders becoming bored and inaccurate exemplifies which threat to validity?
history
instrumentation
testing
instability

instrumentation

12

Intervention B follows A. Results in B are different than what they would be if they didn't follow A. This is due to
instability.
limitations of the ABA design.
multiple treatment interference.
testing.

MULTIPLE INTERVENTION INTERFERENCE: interaction of multiple treatments

13

With each successive hand washing probe, the participant learns more steps. This threat to validity is referred to as
testing.
history.
maturation.
instrumentation.

testing

TESTING: repeated testing

14

Instability as a threat to internal validity refers to
(none of the others)
mental status of participant.
variability of the data.
the influence of one intervention on another.

Variability of the data

INSTABILITY: variability in behavior

15

Instrumentation as a threat to internal validity refers to
apparatuses only not recording accurately.
apparatuses or human observers not recording accurately.
(none of the others)
human observers only not recording accurately.

apparatuses or human observers not recording accurately.

16

Maturation as a threat to internal validity refers to
natural maturing that occurs with the passage of time.
development of new cognitive processes.
physical development of the participant.
changes that occur within the participant.

changes that occur within the participant.

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