02.05 Hypertensive Vascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Cardiology > 02.05 Hypertensive Vascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 02.05 Hypertensive Vascular Disease Deck (28):
1

Most important risk factor for coronary artery disease and stroke

Hypertension

2

Extent and velocity of shortening or force of contraction

Contractility

3

Prime determinant of arterial pressure over the long term

Intravascular volume (TPR)

4

Maintains pressure homeostasis via pressure, volume and chemoreceptor signals

Autonomic nervous system

5

Most potent vasoconstrictor

Angiotensin II

6

Most common cause of secondary hypertension

Renal disease

7

Due to obstruction of renal artery
Mechanism through activation of RAAS
Deterioration of renal function associated with an ACE-I/ARB/DRB

Renovascular hypertension

8

Surgery is the only definitive treatment

Primary aldosteronism

9

Most common congenital cardiovascular cause of hypertension

Coarctation of the aorta

10

First-line agent

Diuretics

11

Inhibit NaCl pump in the distal convoluted tubule (inc. na secretion, diuresis, dec. sv, dec. CO)

Hydrochlorothiazide

12

Very strong diuretic, usually reserved for renal insufficiency

Furosemide

13

Centrally acting sympathetic agonist
Useful for patients with autonomic neuropathy

Sympatholytic agents (clonidine, methyldopa)

14

Side effects include orthostatic HPN, somnolence, dry mouth, rebound HPN on withdrawal, secual dysfunction, myocarditis, thrombocytopenia, bradycardia, weakness

Sympatholytic agents

15

Blocks alpha-adrenergic receptors
Used for phreochromocytoma
Not been shown or proven to reduce CV events

Alpha-blockers (Terasozin)

16

Blocks beta-adrenergic receptors
Good for tachycardic patients, palpitations, anxiety
Proven to reduce CV events in post-MI, CAD, CHF

Beta-blockers (metraprolol, atenolol, bisoprolol, carvediol)

17

Side effects include bronchospasm, weakness, easy fatigue, bradycardia, AV block

Beta-blockers

18

Directly dilates peripheral vessels
Usually in combination with diuretic or beta-blockers

Direct vasodilator (hydralazine)

19

Decreases peripheral resistance by reducing intracellular calcium
Proven to reduce morbidity and mortality

Calcium channel blockers

20

3 types of CCB

Phenylalkylamine (verapamil)
Benzothiazepine (Diltiazem)
Dihydropyridine (Nifedipine, amiodipine)

21

Side effects include flushing, palpitations, headache, pedal edema, AV block

CCB

22

Aldosterone antagonist

Spironolactone

23

Very effective in primary hyperaldosteronism

RAAS blocker

24

Side effects include gynecomastia, impotence, hyperkalemia

RAAS blocker

25

Blocks conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II

ACE-I (catopril, enalapril)

26

Side effects include cough and hyperkalemia

ACE-I

27

Selective blocker of angiotensin I receptors

ARB (losartan, irbesartan, teimisartan)

28

Selective blocker of renin

Direct renin inhibitor (aliskerin)