03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.02 Stimulus, Stimulus Class, and Positive and Negative Reinforcement Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.02 Stimulus, Stimulus Class, and Positive and Negative Reinforcement Deck (23):
1

An increase in the probability of behavior resulting from the contingent presentation of a stimulus is called
type II (negative) punishment.
type I (positive) punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.

positive reinforcement.

2

A child with mental retardation doesn't like to be touched and pushes people away who are close to him. Pushing is maintained by
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.
punishment.
(none of the others)

negative reinforcement.

3

Reinforcement
may involve an aversive stimulus.
occurs contingent upon behavior.
increases the probability of behavior.
(all of the others)

all others

4

A stimulus class is defined as
a group of stimuli to which generality has been demonstrated.
a group of stimuli with one or more common properties.
a group of stimuli that differ by only one property.
a group of stimuli that are identical along a single dimension (e.g., size, color).

a group of stimuli with one or more common properties.

A stimulus class is a group of stimuli with one or more common properties. For example, light waves of different lengths affect the eye and nerves in the form different shades of red. These light waves make up a stimulus class. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 304; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 27))

5

A parent begins to praise a child for hanging up his coat. The child, although reluctant, hangs up his coat more frequently. This exemplifies
type II (negative) punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.
type I (positive) punishment.

positive reinforcement.

6

Contingent praise from peers results in a student running a mile in less time. With respect to fast running, praise exemplifies
punishment.
negative reinforcement.
(none of the others)
positive reinforcement.

positive reinforcement.

7

Which of the following is the best definition of a stimulus class?
a group of stimuli to which generality has been demonstrated
a group of stimuli with one or more common properties
a single object or event
a group of stimuli that are identical along a single dimension (e.g., size, color)

a group of stimuli with one or more common properties


A stimulus class is a group of stimuli with one or more common properties. For example, light waves of different lengths affect the eye and nerves in the form of different shades of red. These light waves make up a stimulus class. (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 1987, p. 304; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 27)

8

Select the definition of reinforcement.
A stimulus change, when presented, frequently elicits a particular response.
A stimulus change, presented following a response, increases the future probability of that behavior.
A stimulus change, removed following a response, decreases the future probability of that behavior.
A behavior increases due to a positive stimulus being presented prior to the response.

A stimulus change, presented following a response, increases the future probability of that behavior.

9

Which of the following may be a stimulus?
a response exhibited by self
a gradual change in temperature
a response exhibited by another person
(all of the others)

(all of the others)


A stimulus is any condition, event, or change in the physical world (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 18). Michael (1993, p. 4) explains that a stimulus affects the organism's receptors-- vision, hearing, smell, taste, cutaneous sense (surface touch, surface pain), kinesthesis (muscle sense), vestibular sense (balance), organic sense (deep touch, deep pain) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 27). A stimulus doesn't necessarily have a measurable effect on behavior.

10

You move around in your chair because you are uncomfortable. Moving around is maintained by
(none of the others)
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.
punishment.

negative reinforcement.

11

A child starts to get spankings for stealing cookies and the stealing increases. Spankings are
type I (positive) punishment.
type II (negative) punishment.
a positive reinforcer.
a negative reinforcer.

a positive reinforcer.


Reinforcement always increases behavior and punishment always decreases it. Positive reinforcement involves the presentation of a stimulus and negative reinforcement involves the removal of a stimulus. Similarly, type I punishment involves the presentation of a stimulus and type II punishment involves the removal of a stimulus. In this example, the child is presented with spankings. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 24-28; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 36-38)
Cl

12

A stimulus is
an event that precedes behavior.
something that has an effect on behavior.
an event that follows behavior.
any condition, event, or change in the physical world.

any condition, event, or change in the physical world.

13

Which of the following best describes a stimulus?
pressure on the right hand from imagining it in one's head
a sound to a man who is totally deaf
light that one could see, but that is too dim to be functional
the thoughts of another person

light that one could see, but that is too dim to be functional

14

A trainer reprimands a noncompliant student. The student begins to follow directions at that moment and more frequently in the future. With regard to compliance, which principle applies?
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement
type I (positive) punishment
type II (negative) punishment

negative reinforcement

15

A teacher's reward system increases the amount of time a student remains on-task. The reward system exemplifies
type II (negative) punishment.
positive reinforcement.
negative reinforcement.
type I (positive) punishment.

positive reinforcement.

16

Which are parts of the same stimulus class?
baseball bat, baseball glove, baseball
blue bat, blue airplane, blue box
"round," "circle," "sphere"
(all of the others)

all others

as long as there is a common properties.

17

A farmer's crops begin to come up several weeks after he plants them. As a result, he plants more crops next year. This is a clear example of
punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.
(none of the others)

none of the above

There is an increase in behavior, but the consequence is far removed in time from the behavior. Therefore, to assert that it is due to positive reinforcement is questionable. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 25; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 34-36; Michael, 1993).

18

All stimuli in a class could exert control over behavior
due to a single common feature.
due to the uniqueness of the stimuli.
only if all features are the same.
(all of the others)

due to a single common feature.

19

Which of the following is a stimulus?
light that one could see by imagining a sunny day
an X-ray
a radio wave
pressure on the right hand caused by one's left hand

pressure on the right hand caused by one's left hand

20

A sibling begins to hit his brother more after the brother begins taunting him. Taunting increases. Hitting is
type II (negative) punishment.
a negative reinforcer.
type I (positive) punishment.
a positive reinforcer.

a positive reinforcer.

21

An increase in the probability of behavior due to contingent removal of a stimulus is called
type II (negative) punishment.
type I (positive) punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.

negative reinforcement.

22

A stimulus class is defined
as a group of identical stimuli.
by its effect on behavior, but only if its effect is similar on all responders in the class.
by its common properties.
as a group of stimuli with no common properties.

by its common properties.

23

Rubbing one's infected ear reduces pain. Rubbing is maintained by
type I (positive) punishment.
type II (negative) punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.

negative reinforcement.

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