03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.07 Extinction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.07 Extinction Deck (27):
1

Behavior can be extinguished by
(none of the others)
DRO.
punishing the behavior.
eliminating the EO.

none

All of the options are behavior reduction strategies, but none involve extinction. The term "extinguish" (and "extinction") is reserved for behavior reductions resulting from withholding reinforcement (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 457-458).

2

When using extinction, it helps to
combine it with reinforcement of appropriate behaviors.
withhold reinforcement consistently.
explain the procedure to the individual.
(all of the others)

all of the others

3

Extinction will be more rapid with a behavior that has been maintained by
a continuous schedule of reinforcement.
an intermittent schedule of reinforcement.
a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement.
antecedent stimulus control.

Continuous schedule of reinforcement

The contrast between a continuous schedule of reinforcement and extinction is greater than that between an intermittent schedule and extinction. Therefore, behavior maintained by continuous reinforcement decreases faster. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 385; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 463-464)

4

Which will occasion new behaviors?
extinction with no access to the maintaining reinforcer.
reinforcement contingent upon a problem behavior.
extinction with continued access to the maintaining reinforcer.
(all of the others)

extinction with no access to the maintaining reinforcer.

If an organism stops receiving reinforcement for a behavior, it tends to evoke other behaviors. Metaphorically speaking, "That behavior doesn't work any more, so I've got to find one that will work." However, if the organism continues to receive reinforcement on, say, a regular schedule, the EO is being satisfied and the evocative effect is reduced or eliminated. This can be useful due to the fact that the behaviors that are occasioned are often aggressive or otherwise undesirable behaviors. (Catania, 1998, pp. 74-75; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 466)

5

Sensory extinction
requires that staff respond quickly when the target behavior occurs.
must be understood by the individual to be effective.
involves masking or removing sensory stimulation resulting from a behavior.
involves withholding all stimulation to all of the five senses.

involves masking or removing sensory stimulation resulting from a behavior.

Sensory extinction involves masking or removing sensory stimulation resulting from a behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 381-383; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 460-461)

6

Extinction will likely reduce which of the following behaviors the quickest?
a new behavior that produces poor quality reinforcement.
a behavior that produces high quality reinforcement and takes a lot of effort.
a behavior with a long history of poor quality reinforcement.
a new behavior that requires little effort and results in high quality reinforcement.

a new behavior that produces poor quality reinforcement.

Behaviors more resistant to extinction are those that have a long history of reinforcement, the quality of the reinforcer is high, the amount of reinforcement is high, and the effort to exhibit the behavior is low. Also, a behavior that has previously been reduced by extinction, and then strengthened again, will decrease more rapidly given a subsequent extinction procedure. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 385-386; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 463-464)

7

Which is true?
An effective punishment procedure can extinguish behavior.
Extinction and punishment used together is contraindicated.
(none of the others)
An extinguished behavior can suddenly return without being reinforced.

An extinguished behavior can suddenly return without being reinforced.

Only behavior that is put on extinction (i.e., reinforcement is withheld) can be extinguished. Using extinction and punishment together is often an effective strategy. You are withholding reinforcement and providing a consequence that has a reductive effect-a powerful combination. Extinction and punishment are two separate processes. With the former, a maintaining reinforcer is no longer provided. With the latter, a punitive consequence is applied without regard to the maintaining reinforcer. You could punish stealing cookies from a cookie jar even though getting a cookie once in a while is still reinforced. Sometimes behaviors that have been extinguished will temporarily return. This is referred to as "spontaneous recovery." (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 462-463; Michael, 1993, pp. 15-16, 51)

8

Aggression begins when ignoring is used for attention-maintained teasing. Also, noncontingent attention is increased. This
should result in less aggression than if noncontingent attention were not increased.
is not surprising.
is spontaneous recovery.
indicates that teasing is still getting reinforced on a thin schedule.

should result in less aggression than if noncontingent attention were not increased.


The additional noncontingent attention will decrease the EO, thus fostering a reduction in teasing and aggression. (Catania, 1998, pp. 74-75; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 466

9

Do not use extinction if
an increase in intensity would present an unacceptable risk.
the behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement.
the behavior has a long history of reinforcement.
you are also using DRO.

an increase in intensity would present an unacceptable risk.

Do not use extinction if an increase in intensity would present an unacceptable risk. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 388-389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 467)

10

Months after being attacked outside her apartment, the woman stopped having an emotional response when she walked toward it. This exemplifies
withholding of a punitive consequence.
operant extinction.
respondent extinction.
withholding positive reinforcement.

It is an un-pairing of the US and CS—respondent extinction.

Operant extinction involves withholding reinforcement when the behavior occurs. Respondent extinction involves the un-pairing of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US). Said another way, respondent extinction has a function-altering effect on the CS. To use the classic example, pairing a tone and meat powder establishes the tone as a CS. When presented alone, the tone then elicits salivation. If the tone is then repeatedly presented without being followed by meat powder, salivation in the presence of the tone decreases. (Catania, 1998, pp. 208-209, 389; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 30, 457-468; Michael, 1993, p. 32)

11

Spontaneous recovery is
short-lived and followed by a decrease in behavior.
not an indication that the extinction procedure is ineffective.
the re-emergence of behavior during extinction.
(all of the others)

all others

12

Terminating an unconditioned stimulus/conditioned stimulus (i.e., US/CS) sequence
will reduce responding to the CS.
describes respondent extinction.
has a function-altering effect.
(all of the others)

all of the others

un-pairing the US and CS causes the eliciting properties of the CS to be diminished. Said another way, it has a function-altering effect on the CS. To use the classic example, pairing a tone and meat powder establishes the tone as a CS. When presented alone, the tone then elicits salivation. If the tone is then repeatedly presented without being followed by meat powder, salivation in the presence of the tone decreases. (Catania, 1998, pp. 208-209; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30; Michael, 1993, p. 32)

13

Which describes "spontaneous recovery."
An extinguished behavior suddenly returns without being reinforced.
Problem behaviors disappear without treatment.
(none of the others)
An extinguished behavior suddenly disappears even though it has been reinforced.

An extinguished behavior suddenly returns without being reinforced.

14

When using extinction, you should
make sure the individual understands the procedure.
plan for a possible increase in aggression or countercontrol.
withhold reinforcement most of the time.
(all of the others)

plan for a possible increase in aggression or countercontrol.

When using extinction, there is the possibility of an increase in aggression or countercontrol. Although it is helpful if the individual understands the procedure, it is not essential. Also, it is important to withhold reinforcement all of the time. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 387-388; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 466)

15

Planned ignoring is extinction
always.
if it results in an immediate reduction in the behavior.
if all behavior is ignored.
if attention is the reinforcer.

if attention is the reinforcer.

16

Operant extinction occurs when
behavior is effectively reduced.
a punitive consequence is withheld.
a reinforcing consequence is withheld.
an unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with a conditioned stimulus.

a reinforcing consequence is withheld.

17

Self-injury has been nearly eliminated through extinction. A new staff inadvertently reinforces it.
Use an aversive procedure.
Expect an increase that might be difficult to reverse.
Change the program.
(all of the others)

Expect an increase that might be difficult to reverse.
\\
Expect an increase that might be difficult to reverse. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 361; Catania, 1998, pp. 72-73)

18

Respondent extinction occurs when
a reinforcing consequence is withheld.
a punitive consequence is withheld.
behavior is effectively reduced.
an unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with a conditioned stimulus.

an unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with a conditioned stimulus.

19

Extinction will likely reduce which of the following behaviors the quickest?
a behavior with a long history of high quality reinforcement
a new behavior that requires a lot of effort
a behavior with a long history of reinforcement that requires little effort
an old behavior that requires a lot of effort

a new behavior that requires a lot of effort.

Behaviors more resistant to extinction are those that have a long history of reinforcement, the quality of the reinforcer is high, the amount of reinforcement is high, and the effort to exhibit the behavior is low. Also, a behavior that has previously been reduced by extinction, and then strengthened again, will decrease more rapidly given a subsequent extinction procedure. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 385-386; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 463-464)

20

Ignoring has been successfully used to extinguish attention-maintained aggression. However, one day aggression occurs again and is ignored.
Continue with the current program.
Expect an increase that might be difficult to reverse.
Change the program.
Conduct a preference assessment.

Continue with the current program.

21

A boy teases his sister because she gets mad when he does so. An appropriate extinction procedure might involve
teaching the boy appropriate social behaviors.
reinforcing appropriate interactions with the sister.
teaching the sister to stop getting mad.
using punishment contingent upon teasing.

teaching the sister to stop getting mad.

22

Extinction
is a punishment procedure.
is a behavior reduction procedure.
is a differential reinforcement procedure.
(all of the others)

is a behavior reduction procedure

Extinction, punishment, and differential reinforcement can all be used to reduce behavior. However, extinction is not a punishment or differential reinforcement procedure. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 360-374; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 378-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 457-468)

23

If sensory stimulation to the hand reinforces hand mouthing, an extinction procedure might use
a glove.
a taste aversive applied to the hand.
planned ignoring.
(all of the above)

a glove.

24

It is learned that sensory stimulation reinforces head banging. An extinction procedure might use
a helmet.
planned ignoring.
a glove.
(all of the others)

a helmet.

25

A sensory extinction procedure for a child who bangs his head against a table would be
reinforce incompatible behavior (e.g., talking to others) and provide a contingent reprimand.
ignore the head banging.
reinforce incompatible behavior (e.g., talking to others).
to pad the table.

to pad the table.

26

Which is true?
(none of the others)
Extinction is a form of punishment.
An extinguished behavior can suddenly stop without being reinforced.
Extinction and punishment used together is contraindicated.

none

27

Aggression began when ignoring was used for attention-maintained teasing. This
indicates that attention is not the only reinforcer.
indicates that teasing is no longer getting reinforced on a thin schedule.
is spontaneous recovery.
is not surprising.

is not surprising

If an organism stops receiving reinforcement for a behavior, it tends to evoke other behaviors. Metaphorically speaking, "That behavior doesn't work any more, so I've got to find one that will work." However, if the organism continues to receive reinforcement on, say, a regular schedule, the EO is being satisfied and the evocative effect is reduced or eliminated. This can be useful due to the fact that the behaviors that are occasioned are often aggressive or otherwise undesirable behaviors. (Catania, 1998, pp. 74-75; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 466)

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