03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.08 Generalization and Discrimination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.08 Generalization and Discrimination Deck (20):
1

Generalization gradient is most similar to
discriminated respondent.
stimulus change decrement.
generalized operant.
extinction.

stimulus change decrement.

The generalization gradient and stimulus change decrement are similar concepts. They occur when a decrease in responding is due to a change in the SD. The generalization gradient refers to the diminishing rate of responding as the SD increasingly varies from the original SD. The mathematical difference (i.e., the decrement) in the rate of responding from the original SD to a variant of that SD is the stimulus change decrement. See descriptions by Catania (1998), Miltenberger (1997), Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007, p. 395) for generalization gradient and by Michael (1993) for stimulus change decrement.

2

Verbal behavior can be
any movement that could affect another organism through the behavior of a speaker.
spoken, read, or signed.
blowing a horn to get someone's attention.
(all of the others)

all of the others

3

A learner improving her performance under conditions different from those in which the original training occurred is called
a conditioned stimulus.
stimulus generalization.
extinction.
response generalization.

stimulus generalization.

4

Stimulus change decrement is the complement of
stimulus change increment.
stimulus generalization.
discrimination.
extinction.

stimulus generalization.

Stimulus change decrement is the complement of stimulus generalization. To use a mentalistic explanation, all responding, given the original and variant forms of the SD, is due to discrimination (as though the organism is "recognizing" the differences in the original and variant SDs) and generalization (as though the organism is not "recognizing" those differences). (Michael, 1993, p. 14)

5

During discrete trial training, a child was taught to point to objects. Instead of pointing, he now sometimes puts his whole hand on the objects. This change in behavior is
stimulus generalization.
maintenance.
(none of the others)
response generalization.

response generalization.

6

A student has learned that when the teacher wears a certain expression, she is more likely to be receptive to his request than if she were not wearing that expression. What is illustrated is
response generalization.
cognitive mapping.
a discrimination.
stimulus generalization.

a discrimination.

7

A child's talking out decreases when a science teacher implements an incentive program. Talking out also decreases in reading class. This is
respondent conditioning.
stimulus generalization.
response generalization.
(all of the above)

stimulus generalization.

The extent to which the learner improves her performance under conditions different from those in which the original training occurred is stimulus generalization. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 556-558; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 394-395; Stokes & Baer, 1977)

8

Verbal behavior is defined by
its structure.
the variables of which it is a function.
the EOs of which it is a function.
its effect on the listener at the time of the response.

the variables of which it is a function.

Verbal behavior is defined as behavior that is "reinforced through the mediation of other persons." Note that, unlike language and speech, it is not defined by its structure or form. Behavior analysts examine verbal relations (e.g., tacts, mands, echoics, textual, and intraverbals), each of which describe the relation between a behavior and its controlling variables. For example, a tact is controlled by a non-verbal stimulus. Contrast this conceptualization with that of language, whereby the focus is on structure and "meaning." (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 528-529; Skinner, 1957)

9

A student has been taught to sound out a typed word, but he can also sound it out when it is written. This is
response generalization.
respondent conditioning.
stimulus generalization.
(all of the abov

stimulus generalization.

The extent to which the learner improves her performance under conditions different from those in which the original training occurred is stimulus generalization. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 556-558; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 394-395; Stokes & Baer, 1977)

10

The reinforcing effect with a stimulus that does not extend to other stimuli is
generalization.
cognitive mapping.
discrimination.
operant.

discrimination

Catania (1998) defines discrimination as "the stimuli that occasion responding conforming closely to the class of stimuli correlated with reinforcement." (cf. Cooper,

11

The effect of conditioning on future responding is strongest
immediately following reinforcement.
when conditions are the same as those during training.
immediately following training.
when conditions are dissimilar to those during training.

when conditions are the same as those during training.
They are strongest when the conditions are the as same or similar to training. See descriptions by Catania (1998), Miltenberger (1997), Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007, p. 395) for generalization gradient and by Michael (1993) for stimulus change decrement.

12

Verbal behavior is
reinforced by the direct actions of the speaker.
reinforced through the mediation of another person.
primarily controlled by EOs.
spoken.

reinforced through the mediation of another person.

13

Rate of responding as a function of the variation of a property of a controlling stimulus describes a
discriminated respondent.
generalized operant.
generalization gradient.
discrimination gradient.

generalization gradient.

A generalization gradient is evidenced by a diminished rate of responding due to a property of a stimulus varying from the original discriminative stimulus. For example, a child is typically picked up at school by his mother driving a Dodge sedan. For each Dodge sedan that approaches, he will look closely to see if that is his mother. Similar sedans will be examined less closely and vehicles that are significantly different will be examined even less closely; and trucks and busses-not at all. (Catania, 1998, pp. 135-137; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 395)

14

Which is an example of verbal behavior?
hitting a pin-ball machine until it says "tilt"
talking to yourself
looking at pictures in a magazine
(all of the others)

talking to yourself

Skinner (1957) defines verbal behavior as that which is "reinforced through the mediation of other persons." However, talking to yourself can be considered verbal behavior-the listener and speaker are the same person. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 528-529; Skinner, 1957, pp. 432-452)

15

A stimulus change decrement occurs when a decrease in responding is due to
a change in the reinforcer.
generalization.
a change in the EO.
a change in the SD.

SD

In math class, a child has learned to respond at a rate of 100 per minute during an academic exercise. When a substitute teacher does the exact same exercise, his rate is 90 per minute. The stimulus change decrement is 10 per minute (cf. Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 395; Michael, 1993, p. 14). The teacher is part of the SD.

16

In a group therapy session held in the office, a child has attained a rate of 8 interactions per hour, but this decreases to 3 per hour when the session is held elsewhere.
There is a generalization gradient of 5.
This illustrates the "teach multiple exemplars" method of achieving generalization.
In this case, the stimulus change decrement and generalization gradient are the same.
There is a stimulus change decrement of 5.

There is a stimulus change decrement of 5.

A stimulus change decrement occurs when a decrease in responding is due to a change in the SD. The difference is the stimulus change decrement. (Michael, 1993, p. 14)

17

Training occurs under one set of conditions and later the behavior change also occurs under a different set of conditions. This is called
response generalization.
discrimination.
stimulus generalization.
a conditioned stimulus.

stimulus generalization.

The extent to which the learner improves her performance under conditions different from those in which the original training occurred is stimulus generalization. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 556-558; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 394-395; Stokes & Baer, 1977)

18

A slightly different behavior than the one that was taught is needed to achieve a task. If the new behavior occurs, we call this
stimulus generalization.
over generalization.
discrimination.
response generalization.

response generalization.

19

A stimulus change decrement is most evident
when conditions are the same as those during conditioning.
immediately following training.
when conditions are dissimilar to those during training.
immediately following reinforcement.

when conditions are dissimilar to those during training.

The stimulus change decrement (or generalization gradient) is most evident when responding decreases as a function of a change in the stimulus conditions. See descriptions by Catania (1998), Miltenberger (1997), Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007, p. 395) for generalization gradient and by Michael (1993) for stimulus change decrement.

20

The reinforcing effect with a stimulus that extends to other stimuli is
discrimination.
discriminated operant.
generalization.
cognitive mapping.

generalization.

Catania (1998) defines generalization as "The spread of the effect of reinforcement from one stimulus correlated with reinforcement to other stimuli." (cf. Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 394-395)

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