03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.09 Behavioral Contingencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.09 Behavioral Contingencies Deck (23):
1

Which is an unconditioned stimulus?
very cold temperature
the sound of your name
hearing "You've just won a million dollars.
(all of the others)

very cold temperature

2

Which is an unconditioned stimulus?
very hot coffee on the tongue
the sound of finger nails on a chalk board
a bright light in your eye
(all of the others)

all

3

Which is true?
Respondent behavior results largely from one's phylogenic history.
Operant behavior is due largely to one's genetics.
Behavior resulting from one's ontogenic history is elicited.
(all of the others)

Phylogenic history is related to respondent behavior.

Ontogenic refers to learning that results from an organism's interaction with his environment. Phylogenic refers to behavior that is inherited genetically. Generally, operant behavior is due to ontogenic history and respondent behavior is due to phylogenic history. We use "elicited" to refer to behavior that is controlled exclusively by antecedent stimuli and "emitted" to refer to behavior that is a function of antecedent and respondent stimuli (i.e., operant). (Catania, 1998, pp. 29-31, 38; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 300; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 32)

4

Behavior that is the result of interactions with the environment during the individual's lifetime is
inherited.
ontogenic.
respondent.
phylogenic.

ontogenic.

Ontogenic refers to learning that results from an organism's interaction with his environment. Phylogenic refers to behavior that is inherited genetically. Generally, operant behavior is due to ontogenic history and respondent behavior is due to phylogenic history. (Catania, 1998, pp. 29-31, 38; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 300)

5

Respondent behavior
can sometimes be brought under operant control.
is under the control of an antecedent.
is not amenable to shaping.
(all of the others)

all others

Respondent behavior can be elicited, but it cannot be shaped. It is elicited by an antecedent stimulus. Respondent behavior can sometimes be brought under operant control. For example, a typical UCR is to draw back from a very hot object UCS (hot object). However, through operant conditioning, one can learn to walk on coals. (Catania, 1998, pp. 198-223; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30)

6

A previously neutral stimulus that elicits a behavior by being correlated with an unconditioned stimulus is
a conditioned stimulus.
an operant stimulus.
a reinforcer.
an unconditioned stimulus.

a conditioned stimulus.

Presenting a neutral stimulus along with an unconditioned stimulus will result in the neutral stimulus acquiring unconditioned stimulus properties--i.e., it will elicit a conditioned response. We then call the previously neutral stimulus a conditioned stimulus. (Catania, 1998, pp. 198-223; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30; Michael, 1993, pp. 31-32, 45)

7

The respondent conditioning process calls for
an unconditioned stimulus that reliably elicits an unconditioned response.
a neutral stimulus paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
absence of the neutral stimulus when the unconditioned stimulus also is absent.
(all of the others)

all others
Respondent conditioning calls for identification of an unconditioned stimulus that reliably elicits an unconditioned response and a pairing of a neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus. Also, the neutral stimulus must be absent when the unconditioned stimulus is absent. (Catania, 1998, pp. 198-223; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 19- 20; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30)

8

Which is synonymous with respondent conditioning?
operant conditioning
Pavlovian conditioning
classical operant
(all of the others)

all others

9

Which is an unconditioned stimulus?
a ringing phone
the aroma of a favorite coat
the aroma of food
a green light

the aroma of food

10

Which is likely an unconditioned response?
jerking your hand away after it touches a hot iron
holding one's breath upon entering a pool
irrational thinking upon hearing "fire" in a theater
(all of the others)

jerking your hand away after it touches a hot iron

11

Which is synonymous with respondent conditioning?
classical operant
cognitive conditioning
classical conditioning
(all of the others)

all others

12

Which is true?
ontogenic behavior is usually emitted
phylogenic behavior is elicited
operant behavior is largely ontogenic
(all of the others)

all others

Ontogenic refers to learning that results from an organism's interaction with his environment. Phylogenic refers to behavior that is inherited genetically. Generally, operant behavior is due to ontogenic history and respondent behavior is due to phylogenic history. We use "elicited" to refer to behavior that is controlled exclusively by antecedent stimuli and "emitted" to refer to behavior that is a function of antecedent and respondent stimuli (i.e., operant). (Catania, 1998, pp. 29-31, 38; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 300; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 32)

13

Which is an unconditioned stimulus?
a sour taste
comfortable clothing
a personal insult
observing someone eat with their mouth open

a sour taste

14

A stimulus that has no effect on behavior is
a discriminative stimulus.
an unconditioned stimulus.
(none of the others)
a neutral stimulus.

a neutral stimulus.
NEUTRAL STIMULUS-no effect
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS-elicits responding without prior training
DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS-reinforcement has been provided in its presence when a given response occurs and has not been provided in its absence.
(Catania, 1998, pp. 198-223; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 19; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 30, 261; Michael, 1993, pp. 31-32)

15

The respondent conditioning process calls for
a neutral stimulus paired with or immediately preceding an unconditioned stimulus.
a neutral stimulus immediately following an unconditioned response.
a conditioned stimulus paired with or preceding an unconditioned response.
(all of the others)

a neutral stimulus paired with or immediately preceding an unconditioned stimulus.
To achieve respondent conditioning, a neutral stimulus must be paired with or immediately precede an unconditioned stimulus. (Catania, 1998, pp. 198-223; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 19-20; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30)

16

Which is likely an unconditioned response?
increased heart rate
a startle response
shivering
(all of the others)

all

17

Someone regularly arrives in a noisy truck bringing fresh donuts. Soon you begin to salivate when you hear the truck coming. Salivating to the noise from the truck is
an unconditioned response.
a conditioned stimulus.
a conditioned response.
an operant behavior.

a conditioned response.

18

A reflex is
a response and its associated ontogenic history.
a response and its associated controlling stimulus.
determined by ontogenic history.
a conditioned stimulus and its associated controlling stimulus.

It is a response and its associated controlling stimulus.

19

Behavior that is the result of one's genetic background is
phylogenic.
respondent.
ontogenic.
operant.

phylogenic.

20

An unconditioned response is elicited by
a conditioned stimulus.
a discriminative stimulus.
an unconditioned stimulus.
a neutral stimulus.

an unconditioned stimulus.

21

Someone regularly arrives in a noisy truck bringing fresh donuts. Soon you begin to salivate when you hear the truck coming. The noise from the truck is
a conditioned stimulus.
a conditioned response.
an unconditioned stimulus.
a neutral stimulus.

a conditioned stimulus.

22

An unconditioned stimulus elicits
a conditioned response.
a learned response.
an unconditioned response.
a neutral stimulus.

an unconditioned response.

23

The presentation of a stimulus which elicits a response without prior conditioning is
a discriminative stimulus.
a neutral stimulus.
an unconditioned stimulus.
a conditioned stimulus.

an unconditioned stimulus.

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