03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts/ 03.11 Mands Flashcards Preview

Test Cards > 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts/ 03.11 Mands > Flashcards

Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts/ 03.11 Mands Deck (25):
1

The form of a mand may be
determined by the SD.
influenced by the SD.
influenced by the EO.
determined by the EO.

influenced by the SD.
Unlike the form of echoics that are specified by the verbal SD, the form of mands are not determined by the SD. For example, "Caca," "Cookie, please," "I want something sweet," or signing for cookie may all be consequated with the delivery of a cookie. Neither the SD (nor the EO) determine the form of the response. However, the SD may influence it. For example, if the person to whom the mand is directed is a signer, the person manding is more likely to sign; but he may sign a variety of words, all of which are characteristically reinforced with the delivery of a cookie. (Michael, 1993, pp. 99-101)

2

Which is a type of extended mand?
magical mands
literate mand
super mand
(all of the others)

magical mands
Extended mands:

SUPERSTITIOUS MAND-the reinforcing event has been incidental; a collateral event; not a consequence of the mand, but a coincidence (e.g., "Deal me a full house," and then an honest dealer happens to deal a full house.)

MAGICAL MAND-describing the reinforcement that would be appropriate given the current state of deprivation or aversive stimulation; in lay terms--wishful thinking (e.g., A desperate cry for water in the middle of the desert.)

MAND IN LITERATURE-characters in a story making requests

3

A cat owner jokingly says to his cat, "Fetch my slippers," knowing that he would not even try. This
is a superstitious mand.
is a magical mand.
is not an extended mand.
cannot be a mand because the cat can't do it.

is a magical mand.

Extended mands:

SUPERSTITIOUS MAND-the reinforcing event has been incidental; a collateral event; not a consequence of the mand, but a coincidence (e.g., "Deal me a full house," and then an honest dealer happens to deal a full house.)

MAGICAL MAND-describing the reinforcement that would be appropriate given the current state of deprivation or aversive stimulation; in lay terms--wishful thinking (e.g., A desperate cry for water in the middle of the desert.)

MAND IN LITERATURE-characters in a story making requests

(Skinner, 1957, pp. 46-51)

4

A mand will not occur without a/an
SD.
characteristic consequence.
EO.
(all of the others)

EO
Mands do not occur without a state of deprivation and aversive stimulation. They may occur without an SD. Although mands are maintained via receipt of the item or event manded, receipt of the object/event occurs after the mand. So any particular mand event is not dependent upon the consequence that follows it. (Michael, 1993, pp. 99-101; Sundberg, 2007, pp. 530, 541-543)

5

"Move over," a driver mumbles to himself when a car comes into his lane. This
is a mand in literature.
is a magical mand.
is a magical tact.
cannot be a mand because nobody heard it.

is a magical mand.

6

A mand which specifies a verbal action is
its own category of verbal operant.
an implied mand.
a question.
(all of the others)

question

Questions are mands for verbal action. (Skinner, 1957, p. 39; Sundberg, 2007, p. 530)

7

Mands
occasioned by a specific consequence.
are reinforced by any consequence that increases the future probability of the behavior.
have point-to-point correspondence with the item or event manded.
reinforced by a specified consequence.

are reinforced by a specified consequence.

Mands specify their reinforcer. That is, what is requested is what is to be delivered. In other words, mands are reinforced by delivery of the item/event manded. (Michael, 1993, pp. 99-101; Sundberg, 2007, pp. 530, 541-543)

8

"Get me out of here!"
is always a demand, but not necessarily a mand.
is always a tact.
is typically a tact.
is typically a mand.

typically a mand.
You cannot strictly identify a verbal operant by its form. If under the aversive control of being behind a locked door, "Get me out of here!" is a mand. However, said under the control of another person saying "Get me out of here!" it is an echoic. (Skinner, 1957, p. 36; Sundberg, 2007, p. 530)

9

Rushing through a test, a child begs of the teacher, "Please give me more time." This is
a superstitious mand.
not an extended mand.
a mand in literature.
a magical mand.

not an extended mand.
Extended mands cannot be reinforced. In this item, the teacher could grant more time. (Skinner, 1957, pp. 46-51)

10

Mands are reinforced by
a characteristic EO.
any consequence that increases the future probability of the behavior.
provision of an EO.
a characteristic consequence.

a characteristic consequence.
Mands specify their reinforcer. That is, what is requested is what is to be delivered. In other words, mands are reinforced by delivery of the item/event manded. (Michael, 1993, pp. 99-101; Sundberg, 2007, pp. 530; 541-542)

11

Which is typically a mand?
"Take one free."
"Beware."
"Watch your step."
(all of the others)

all

12

Which is a type of extended mand?
superstitious mands
literate mand
super mand
(all of the others)

superstitious mands

13

The difference between regular and extended mands is that
regular mands do not get reinforced.
the extended mand is directed to someone who has never reinforced it.
extended mands do not get reinforced.
the topography of an extended mand has never been reinforced.

extended mands do not get reinforced.

14

The word "mand" is derived from
demand.
command.
countermand.
(all of the others)

all
Skinner (1957, p. 35) explains that he came up with the term "mand" because of its mnemonic similarity to words like command, demand, and countermand, all of which are a form of request for behavior. (Sunberg, 2007, pp. 529-530)

15

Mands are primarily under the control of
SDs and SRs.
SDs.
EOs.
states of satiation.

Mands do not occur without a state of deprivation or aversive stimulation. They may occur without an SD. Although mands are maintained by receipt of the item or event manded, this occurs after the behavior. So a particular mand response is not dependent upon the consequence that follows it. Another way to look at it is that reinforcement on previous occasions has given control to the EO on the current occasion. Similarly, that same history of reinforcement gives control to an SD on the current occasion. However, the SD is a secondary source of control-the response may occur in the absence of an SD, but not the EO. (Michael, 1993, pp. 99-101; Sundberg, 2007, pp. 530, 541-543)

16

Which is a type of extended mand?
mand in literature
implied mand
inanimate mand
(all of the others)

mand in literature

17

Child is hungry, cookie jar and parent are present, child asks for a cookie.
Cookie jar and parent make up the SD.
Cookie jar and parent make up the mand.
Cookie jar and parent make up the EO.
Hunger is the SD.

Cookie jar and parent make up the SD.
Cookie jar and parent make up the SD. Hunger is the EO. The request is the mand. (Michael, 1993, pp. 99-101; Sundberg, 2007, pp. 530, 541-543)

18

"Romeo, Romeo. Where for art thou Romeo?" (Shakespeare)
is either a magical or superstitious mand.
is a mand in literature.
is a superstitious mand.
is a magical mand.

is a mand in literature.

19

Which contains all mands (if typical usage is assumed)?
"I'm sick." "Sh-h."
"Please." "Sh-h."
"Please." "I'll wait."
"Give me a hug." "Dinner is almost ready."

"Please." "Sh-h."

20

Child is hungry, cookie jar and parent are present, child asks for a cookie. This is a/an
mand under the control of hunger (SD) and the cookie jar (SD).
EO under the control of a mand.
mand under the control of hunger (SD).
mand under the control of hunger (EO).

mand under the control of hunger (EO).

21

Verbal responses that specify their reinforcers are
tacts.
mands.
EOs.
verbal operants.

mands.

22

Mands directed at untrained animals, dolls, and objects that could not possibly reinforce those mands are
extended mands.
implied mands.
mand analogies.
superstitious mands.

extended mands.

23

Which is a type of extended mand?
superstitious mand
magical mand
mand in literature
(all of the others)

all

24

"Work, work!" someone exclaimed when they lost their cell phone signal is
either a magical mand or a mand in literature.
not an extended mand.
a mand in literature.
a magical mand.

a magical mand.

25

A skier manding to the sky for snow
could not be a magical mand.
is a superstitious behavior, but not a mand.
is either a magical or superstitious mand.
is a typical mand.

is either a magical or superstitious mand.

Decks in Test Cards Class (41):